XX♀ Differences ♂Xy
Are men-Xy & women-XX more similar in terms of sex or in terms of gender?
Sex ≠ Gender
Don’t read all of this. It’s my first piece since 2021 so it’s massive. Please use the table of contents below to fast travel to the desired content.
— Lesbians’ income is considerably higher than heterosexual women’s (Black et al., 2000; Carpenter, 2008; Dilmaghani, 2017; Mueller, 2014).
— “[Straight] women out-earn their husbands 22.1% of the time (Murray-Close & Heggeness, 2018).
— Women earn 57.3% of bachelor’s degrees, 60.1% of master’s degrees, & 53.5% of doctoral degrees (National Center For Edu Statistics, 2019)” (Parker et al., 2022).
👩🏻🎓 — Women obtain considerably more education than men in the vast majority of industrialized countries
(DiPrete & Buchmann, 2013; Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2015; Van Hek, Kraaykamp, Wolbers, 2016).
🤰🏻— “Women generally can become pregnant; men generally cannot”
(Deborah Widiss, 2021).
🤱🏻— For each pregnancy, women invest a minimum of nine months and a total energetic cost of nearly 80,000 calories (Gillian Parker et al., 2022). And breastfeeding increases caloric needs by 26% (Dufour & Sauther, 2002).
— Cross culturally, women tend to have a lighter skin tone than men
(Anita Sitek et al., 2018; Banerjee, 1984; Firooz et al., 2012; Jablonski & Chaplin, 2000; Kalla & Tiwari, 1970; Kalla, 1973; Madrigal & Kelly, 2007; van den Berghe & Frost, 1986; Viren Swami et al., 2008).
🐈— Most cat people identify as women (Alba & Haslam, 2015; DeLeeuw, 2010; Gosling et al., 2010; Guastello et al., 2017; Mitchell & Ellis, 2013; Perrine & Osbourne, 1998).
— Women in same-sex relationships experience the most orgasms (Blair & Pukall, 2014; Blair et al., 2018; Frederick et al., 2017; Garcia et al., 2014). Women are least likely to experience orgasm during penile–vaginal intercourse (e.g., Kinsey, et al., 1953; Laumann et al., 1994; Lloyd, 2005).
— Straight men prioritize penetrative sex more than gay men, as it occurs less often in gay men’s same-sex sexual activity than it does in opposite-sex sexual activity (de Visser, et al., 2003; Grulich et al., 2003; Laumann et al., 1994). Gay men have mutual masturbation and oral sex more than anal sex (Rosenberger et al., 2011).
🚲 — Males have more bicycle accidents than females, a pattern known for decades
(Amoros et al., 2011; Boufous et al., 2011; Briem, 2003; Carlin et al., 1995; Carlin et al., 1998; Colwell & Culverwell, 2002; Hagel et al., 2015; Hansen et al., 2005; Jie Yu et al., 2012; Li et al., 1995; Macpherson et al., 2004; Rubio et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2009).
“Sex is among the most commonly reported risk factors of bicycle accidents (Carlin et al., 1995; Carlin et al., 1998; Hagel et al., 2015; Hansen et al., 2005; Li et al., 1995; Macpherson et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2009)” (Tania Embree et al., 2016).
“French and European studies indicate that bicycle accidents are more observed in boys than in girls (Amoros et al., 2011; Briem, 2003; Colwell & Culverwell, 2002).
The association between risk taking and masculinity would also reflect this over-representation: boys would have more risky behaviors than those of girls” (Bérengère Rubio et al., 2021).”
Men driving with women have a lower risk of crashing (Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004; Simons-Morton et al., 2015; Behnood & Mannering, 2017).
The association between risk taking and masculinity would also reflect this over-representation: boys would have more risky behaviors than those of girls” (Bérengère Rubio et al., 2021).”
“French and European studies indicate that bicycle accidents are more observed in boys than in girls (Amoros et al., 2011; Briem, 2003; Colwell & Culverwell, 2002).
Girls exhibit lower road risks than boys (Jie Yu et al., 2012; Bérengère Rubio et al., 2021; Tania Embree et al., 2016; De Bogota et al., 2014;
Males kept more distance from the vehicle in front of them when driving with a female than with a male. Risky driving among teen females was significantly higher in the presence of a female passenger. — Bruce Simons-Morton et al., 2005
— “Ratings of attractiveness were around 4x more sensitive to salary for women rating men, compared to men rating women. These results indicate that higher economic status can offset lower physical attractiveness in men much more easily than in women” (Guanlin Wang et al., 2018).
Women prioritize height in a lover more than men (Salska et al., 2008; Yancey & Emerson, 2014; Kurzban & Weeden, 2005; Courtiol et al., 2010; Pawlowski, 2003; Salska et al., 2008; Stulp et al., 2012, 2013).
— Men who have a daughter as their first child are less likely to commit domestic violence against their wife/gf (Somville, 2019).
— Kisilevich & Last (2010) found that — across 35 countries — women were more likely than men to disclose a child on a personal advertisement.
— Why do they call it hot girl summer? Because about 90% of all candles are purchased by women. Though in 2017 men bought a male-record of 10% of all candles, shattering the previous male record.
🌈 Born This Way
Sexuality is partially influenced by genetic factors in both men & women (Alanko et al. 2010; Bailey et al. 1993, 2000; Burri et al. 2011; Camperio Ciani et al., 2018; Ganna et al., 2019; Gartrell et al., 2019; Kendler et al. 2000; Kirk et al., 2000; Långström et al. 2010; Sanders et al., 2015; Sarah Nila et al., 2018; Schumm, 2010),
and has been found cross-culturally since prehistoric times (Barthes et al. 2013; Boellstorf, 2004 [Indonesia]; Cáceres et al., 2006 [South & East Asia]; Crompton, 2006 [Gay males in antiquity]; Diamond 1993; Herdt 1997; Mondimore 1996; Nash 2001; VanderLaan et al. 2014).
“Genetic studies have found that female homosexuality largely has a more flexible response to a shared environment than male homosexuality (Alanko et al. 2010; Bailey et al. 2000; Långström et al. 2010; Lippa 2006; Rahman 2005)” (Camperio Ciani et al., 2018).
— On household maintenance, childcare, & many variables associated with dyadic & familial egalitarianism, same-sex couples are superior to opposite-sex couples
(Bos et al., 2007; Bos & van Balen, 2010; Chan et al., 1998; Ciano-Boyce & Shelley-Sireci, 2002; Farr & Patterson, 2013; Goldberg, 2010; Goldberg et al., 2012; Goldberg, 2013; Kim & Stein, 2018; Kurdek, 1993, 2007; Moore, 2008; Patterson et al., 2004; Perlesz et al., 2010; Solomon et al., 2005; Tasker & Golombok, 1998; Tornello et al., 2015; Weisshaar, 2014).
Gay male couples are more likely to have consensual nonmonogamous relationships (Conley et al., 2013; Gotta et al., 2011; Kim & Stein, 2018). For gay men → 40% of the male–male couples had an agreement that sex outside their relationship was acceptable under some circumstances, something that was true for only 6% of heterosexual & female–female couples (Solomon et al., 2005).
“Gay men with a receptive (Bottom or Versatile) anal sex role (ASR) reported greater childhood gender nonconformity (GNC) than those with an insertive (Top) ASR” (Ashlyn Swift-Gallant et al., 2021).
“Bisexual women had a higher rate of infidelity with their boyfriends (62.5%) than girlfriends (10.5%), regardless of whether the affairs were with men or with women” (Hoang et al., 2011).
Lesbians have the highest rate of dissolution, a pattern known for decades (Andersson et al., 2006; Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983; Dugan, 2013; Gartrell et al., 2011; Goldberg & Romero, 2019; Holley, 2017; Joyner et al., 2017; Ketcham & Bennett, 2019; Kolk & Andersson, 2020; Kurdek, 1991, 1992; Rosenfeld, 2014; Ross et al., 2011; Rothblum, 2009; Rothblum et al., 2018; Wiik et al., 2014).
Aaron Hoy et al., 2021: “The fact that more than half of our sample (58.4%) was female may explain why we observed a broad willingness to divorce among our respondents, given that in young adulthood, women are more likely than men to hold tolerant or accepting views of divorce (e.g., Axinn & Thornton, 1996; Kapinus & Flowers, 2008; Kapinus & Johnson, 2002).”
Straight women are less open to dating bisexual men than gay men (Armstrong & Reissing, 2014; Callis, 2013; Feinstein et al., 2014, 2016; Gleason et al., 2018; Rust, 1995; Yost & Thomas, 2012).
LG Mate Preferences
Gay male couples are more likely to have an age gap of 10+ years compared to lesbian & heterosexual couples (Capote & Nieto, 2018). Thus, even when gestational/reproductive potential is irrelevant, men still want someone younger.
LG lovers are more willing to accept large age differences
(Andersson et al., 2006; Capote & Nieto, 2018; Ciscato et al., 2020; Conway et al., 2015; Cortina & Cabre, 2010; Gobrogge et al., 2007; Meil, 2001; Schwartz & Graf, 2009; Verbakel & Kalmijn, 2014).
Compared to straight males, “gay males show a tendency to enhance rapport and to use face-enhancing positive politeness for bonding with their female colleagues, freer from suspicions of flirtatious behavior”
(SantaMaria Garcia, 2021)
“The Gender Pray Gap” (Landon Schnabel, 2019)
— Women pray more than men
(assume Christianity unless [specified)
(Argyle, 1958; Baker, 2008; Batson et al., 1993; Bradshaw & Ellison, 2009; Collett & Lizardo, 2009; Firth, 1997 [Hinduism]; Ghorbani et al., 2014 [Iran Muslims]; Gonzalez, 2011 [Kuwait Muslims]; Jones, 2021; Jung, 2014 [South Korea]; Khan et al., 2015 [Pakistan Muslims]; Krause & Chatters, 2005; Miller & Hoffman, 1995; Ryberg et al., 2018; Schnabel, 2015 [Judaism]; Schnabel, 2019 [Hindu women & Buddhist women]; Voas et al., 2013).
— Women are more likely to be baptized than men
(Diane M. Notarianni, 1996; John Richard Johnson, 1982; Judge H. Klein, 2018; Ralph Peay, 2005; P. Jonsson et al., 2020).
🕉 Hindus: women are more religious (Firth, 1997; (Landon Schnabel, 2019).
☯ Buddhists: Women are “substantially more religious than men” (Landon Schnabel, 2019)
☪ Muslims: women more religious than men
Iran (Ghorbani et al., 2014; Khan et al., 2015)
Pakistan (Khan et al., 2015)
Kuwait (Alessandra Gonzalez, 2011)
✡ Judaism: Jewish women pray more than men (Schnabel, 2015)
However → men more religious (Muslims; Landon Schnabel, 2019), (Hindus, Jews, & Muslims; Kate Loewenthal et al., 2002)
Sikhs: No difference (Francis et al., 2020)
Women have a higher quantity & quality of interpersonal relationships than men in church (Krause et al., 2002), and they rely on church more than men for provisions of social support (Ross and Mirowsky, 2010).
Prayer helps attenuate the influence of stress on depression — but only for women (Mirola, 1999; Wang & Patten, 2002).
Krause & Chatters, 2005: Research suggests that more frequent prayer is associated with a greater sense of psychological well-being (Poloma and Gallup, 1991).
Earning$$$ per hour is negatively associated with prayer frequency (Brown, 2009). People who are wealthy don’t talk to God as much.
— Women are better at discerning emotions
(Campbell et al., 2002; Collignon et al., 2011; Hall, 1978; Hampson et al., 2006; Kret & Gelder, 2012; Mandal & Palchoudhury, 1985; Nowicki & Hartigan, 1988; Thayer & Johnsen, 2000).
— Women are more emotionally expressive than men
(e.g., Fabes & Martin, 1991; Johnson & Shulman, 1988; Shields, 1984), especially that women are believed to smile more and to express more positive and communal feelings (Shulman, 1988), but also more powerless emotions, such as fear, vulnerability and sadness (Brody, 1997; Cornelius, 1982; Crester, Llombardo, Lombardo, & Mathis, 1982). Men on the other hand are believed to suppress their emotions, except in the case of powerful emotions (e.g., anger, aggression).
Research finds that women score higher than men on interpersonal emotional IQ, emotional self-awareness, and overall emotional IQ (Gardner, 2005; Grubb & McDaniel, 2007; McIntyre, 2010; Palmer et al., 2003; Penrose et al., 2007), emotional perception (Kafetsios, 2004), intrapersonal & interpersonal skills (Parker, et al., 2004; Alnabhan, 2008; Wessell, et al., 2008), perceiving, facilitating, understanding, & managing emotions (Bay & McKeage, 2006; Ciarrochi et al., 2000; Esturgo-Deu & Sala-Roca, 2010; Mayer et al., 1999; Zeidner& Olnick-Shemesh, 2010), expressing emotions (Mayer & Geher, 1996), being sensitive to the emotions of others, having better recall of affect-laden info regarding others, have a wider lexicon for describing emotions (McIntyre, 2010), and women are more empathetic than men (Tapia & Marsh, 2006).
“Men are more likely than women to have been persuaded to do favors by opposite-sex strangers using their physical attractiveness, only to discover that the persuaders were not physically attracted to them” (Davies et al., 2008).
Parental Socialization of Emotion
👨👩👧👦 Parents nurture their daughters’ emotional expression & interactive repertoire more than their sons’, contributing to socialized gender differences in emotional intelligence
(Adams et al., 1995; Brody, 1997; Cassano et al., 2007; Fabes & Martin, 1991; Fivush, 1991, 1998; Fivush et al., 2000; Naghavi & Redzuan, 2011; Sanches-Nunez, et al., 2008; Zahn-Waxler et al., 2000).
Girls are socialized to express their emotions while boys are socialized to withhold, cover, ignore, & suppress their emotions (Chaplin et al., 2005; Cunningham et al., 2009).
The consequence of this socialization pattern is ⬇
🤖 Female voices are preferred when interacting with Ai/ voice assistants/ technology
(Borau et al., 2021; Erin Rivero, 2020; Eugenia Kuyda & Replika, 2020; Gill Martin, 2010; Nicole Hennig, 2018; Schwar & Moynihan, 2020; Shead, 2017; Stern, 2017).
People perceive greater warmth, friendliness, & emotional IQ from a female AI-bot than a male (Eyssel & Hegel, 2012; Gustavsson, 2005; Lopatovska et al., 2021; Otterbacher & Talias, 2017; Stroessner & Benitez, 2019), and view female AI as more trustworthy (Siegel et al., 2009).
Google: Gendered Autofill
“A study of Google autosuggestions found that American parents are 2.5x more likely to Google “Is my son gifted?” than “Is my daughter gifted?” and 2x as likely to Google “Is my daughter overweight?” than “Is my son overweight? These rates are misaligned with an American reality in which boys are 9% more likely to be overweight than girls, while girls are 11% more likely to be in a gifted program (Stephens-Davidowitz, 2014)” (Boaz Miller & Isaac Record, 2017).
Emotional Gender Roles
Women are expected to play communal roles in society by demonstrating kindness, gentleness, friendliness, concern, sympathy, and caring (Cialdini & Trost, 1998), while men are expected to play agentic roles by demonstrating competence, independence, decisiveness, dominance, power, and aggression (Rosette & Tost, 2010). We consistently reinforce these socially constructed gender roles in our culture (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier, 2007).
In organizations, advertisements, language, politics, education, and works of art, women are regularly portrayed as benevolent and beautiful, while men are typically characterized as a strong source of authority (Goldenberg & Roberts, 2004; Jost & Kay, 2005).
Women cry more than men across countries (Dianne A. van Hemert et al., 2011), including 2–4x more often than men in Western countries (Vingerhoets & Scheirs, 2000), but men cry relatively more often because of positive reasons (Vingerhoets & Bylsma, 2016).
Crester et al. (1982): Men were more likely than women to react with negative reactions to male criers (seeing their crying as a sign of weakness and as not appropriate). Reactions to female criers were similar for both genders (more sympathy, acceptance, and a greater willingness to help).
Jesser (1989): Both men and women reported a greater tendency to comfort female than male criers, & men reported more confusion, irritation, & avoidance in response to male criers.
Men traditionally report that they avoid crying in front of strangers (Lombardo et al., 2000), though there is greater approval of men’s tears when the tears occurred in response to the breakup of a romantic relationship (Fischer et al., 2004; Lombardo et al., 2000).
Across cultures, women show their tears 5x more often than men (Walter, 2006), consistent with research finding that women are more emotionally expressive than men (Fabes & Martin, 1991; Johnson & Shulman, 1988; Shields, 1984; fear, vulnerability and sadness, Brody, 1997; Cornelius, 1982; Crester et al., 1982), smile more & express more communal affect than men (Shulman, 1988). In contrast, men are more likely to suppress their emotions, except in the case of anger & aggression.“Research provides support for our arguments and the notion that a crying man is seen as atypical. Popular sayings like “boys don’t cry” and “crying is for girls” (Good, Sherrod, & Dillon, 2000) reinforce the presence of societal norms regarding gender and crying behavior.
In the field of adolescent psychology, researchers found that adolescent males who behave in a genderatypical way (e.g., being gentle) experience more bullying, teasing, psychological disorders, social rejection, victimization, loneliness, and suicide (Young & Sweeting, 2004).
School age boys who cry ranked as less popular than other classmates, and mocked in front of other students (Adler et al., 1992)” (Daphna Motro & Aleksander Ellis, 2017).
Girls are more likely to use relational aggression (Archer, 2004; Cairns et al., 1989; Donoghue & Raia-Hawrylak, 2016; Rose et al., 2004; Zimmer-Gembeck et al., 2013) & are more relationally victimized than males (Crick & Bigbee, 1998; Crick et al., 2007) as relational aggression facilitates the formation of peer relationships due to others wanting to affiliate with high-status peers (e.g., The Plastics) (Vaillancourt & Hymel, 2006; Vaillancourt & Krems, 2018).
In adulthood wives are more likely than husbands to use relational aggression (Panagiota Ira Bitsola & Kyranides, 2021).
— Among men in prisons, 9.3% were sexual minorities
— Among women in prison, 42.1% were sexual minorities (Ilan H. Meyer et al., 2017)
Sex & Memory
The Hippocampus (memory) is roommates with the amygdala (emotion) & women tend to be socialized to be in touch with their emotions whereas men are socialized to put all the emotions in the “man box” & never allow themselves to look inside or express or really feel anything.
Also, emotion is part of the content of material that one may try to remember. As such, using emotion would seemingly improve one’s memory trace of an event.
Thus, we can’t be surprised that the sex that has a higher emotional IQ & utilizes emotion is going to have better memory. indeed…
→ Women tend to outperform men in episodic memory function (Lundervold et al., 2014; Sunderaraman et al., 2013; Herlitz et al., 1997)
→ Women have a stronger capacity for retrieving memories (Loprinzi & Frith, 2018)
→ Men have a steeper age-associated memory decline (Ferreira et al., 2014)
→ Women outperform men in verbal episodic memory tasks (regardless of IQ) (Herlitz & Yonker, 2002)
→ Women access their memories with more precision (Skowronski et al., 1991) & speed (Davis, 1999) than men
→ Women describe memories with more emotional terminology (Fuentes & Desrocher, 2013)
→ better episodic memory (Asperholm et al., 2019)
The Sex of Punctuation
Exclamation points is just a part of my overall performance as GamerGirl, but one with decades of research indicating that women use more exclamation points & exclamatory prose than males:
- Carol Scates (1981): women used more exclamation points
- Rubin & Greene (1992): women used more exclamation AND CAPITALIZATION
- Herring (1994): Women used more supportive discourse online; including more thanks/gratitude with exclamatory punctuation
- Winn & Rubin (2001): women used more nonessentials and excitability markers than men’’
- Colley & Todd (2002): women use “multiple exclamation points” more than men !!!!
- Waseleski (2006): women used more exclamation points; used for different reasons, not solely excitability
- Aybar (2019)
Custody & Household Arrangements
👩👧👦— Most kids living with a single parent live with the parent who gave birth to them
(Bajackson, 2013; Bennett, 2017; Child Trends, 2002; Chiu et al., 2018; Debra Mesch et al., 2015; Emery et al., 2005; Goldberg & Romero, 2019; Grall, 2013; Haire & McGeorge, 2011; Kim & Stein, 2018; Kohn, 2015; Rabindrakumar, 2018; Saini, 2013; Turchi & Bernabo, 2020; US Census, 2017; Waller & Jones, 2014; Widiss, 2021)…
…whether she’s heterosexual or lesbian (Gartrell et al., 2011).
Courts favor the birth parent in custody disputes, whether she’s in an opposite-sex or same-sex relationship (Kim & Stein, 2018; Malmquist, 2015).
Would courts favor giving bisexual women custody over lesbians based on the possibility that bisexual women will one day be in an opposite-sex relationship?
“Custodial single mothers are more likely to have never married (42.6%) than to declare any other marital status.
Custodial single fathers are more likely to be divorced (32.9%) than to declare any other marital status (Grall, 2016)” (Jackie Krasas, 2021).
Father Involvement: Content Analysis of 200+ Picture Books
“A content analysis of the gender roles exhibited in 200 prominent children’s picture books demonstrated that fathers are largely under-represented, and, when they do appear, they are withdrawn and ineffectual parents” (David A. Anderson & Mykol Hamilton, 2005)
Although the labor force participation rate for mothers with infants rose from 38% in 1980 to 55% in 2002 (Downs, 2003), mothers in dual-earner families still perform about one-third more housework than fathers do, and they shoulder the majority of cooking and child care responsibilities (Bond, Thompson, Galinsky, & Prottas, 2003).
Babies were nurtured almost 10 times as often by mothers, older children were nurtured more than twice as often by mothers, & kids in the books made more than twice as many mentions of their mothers. Mothers expressed emotion more often, mothers would more often cry and be happy.
With the exception of hugging babies and carrying older children, mothers in these books performed every measured nurturing behavior at least twice as often as fathers, and fathers were never seen kissing or feeding babies” (Anderson & Hamilton, 2005).
First-Borns & Siblings
Couples with a first-born son are more likely to stay married (Ichino et al., 2011; Ananat and Michaels, 2008; Bedard and Deschênes, 2005; Dahl and Moretti, 2008; Mammen, 2008; Morgan et al., 1988; Spanier and Glick, 1981; Prashant Bharadwaj, 2014).
Girls have more siblings than boys as many families continue having children until they have a son
(Basu & Jong, 2010; Clark, 2000; Filmer et al., 2008; Haoming Liu, 2013; Jensen, 2003; Kimberly Babiarz et al., 2018; Laura Rahm, 2018; Laura Rahm, 2020; Park & Cho, 1995; S Anukriti et al., 2015; Yamaguchi, 1989).
“The desire for a son is the father of many daughters” (Seidl, 1995, p. 185).
As such, boys are more likely to be only children than girls (Zhou et al., 2016).
Fathers tend to differentiate more than mothers between boys and girls in their childrearing strategies (Lytton & Romney, 1991).
2nd Shift For Women & Weight
Women are most likely to gain weight when they get married. Having to do additional tasks around the residence that the husband isn’t doing takes away from women’s fitness/exercise time that she had before marriage.
About 68.2% of multilingual women indicated that being bilingual is something they look for in a lover whereas 56.5% of multilingual men indicated it’s not (see image at the bottom).
“Daughters more likely than sons (regardless of birth order or age differences) to interpret for their parents, but daughters were also far more likely to be bilingual; fluent in both spoken English and American Sign Language” (Preston, 1996).
“Female students communicated with their parents more frequently than male students and, similarly, parents initiated contact with daughters more often than with sons” (Wendy Lee Wen Ni, 2019).
Daughters more likely than sons (regardless of birth order or age differences) to interpret for their parents, but daughters were also far more likely to be bilingual; fluent in both spoken English and American Sign Language.
Reading Scores — Margriet van Hek et al., 2019
“Girls have higher average reading scores than boys in every/ all/ 100% of OECD countries (Stoet and Geary, 2013; OECD, 2015).
Women have more nightmares than men [Levin & Nielsen, 2007; Robert & Zadra, 2014; Schredl & Reinhard, 2011] and more nightmare awakenings (Robert & Zadra, 2014).
Research generally finds poorer sleep quality for women (Fatima et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2016; Ohayon et al., 2017) & the pandemic exacerbated this (Trakada et al., 2020; Xiao et al., 2020; Huang & Zhao, 2020; Charles Morin et al., 2021; Nicola Cellini et al., 2021; Paiva et al., 2021; Teresa Mika Argo et al., 2021).
🛍🛒 Men shop faster than women
Men shop faster than women
(Alreck & Settle, 2002; Bogomolova et al., 2016; Eva Mahlangu & Makhitha, 2019; Kirgiz, 2014; Mary Graham, 2012; Miller & Washington, 2009; Otnes & McGrath, 2001; Ramprabha, 2017; Sharma & Sharma, 2020; Smith & Whitlark, 2001; Sohail, 2015; Teller & Thomson, 2012; Tifferet and Herstein, 2012; Van Slyke et al., 2002).
Men prefer mall shopping on holidays & women on working days, and are more likely to look for ways to save time & money (Sharma & Sharma, 2020).
Male shoppers appear to buy what they need with a minimum of time and effort and leave as quickly as possible (Alreck & Settle, 2002; Otnes & McGrath, 2001).
“If a man can’t find the section he is looking for, he will typically walk around the store in one of two quick circuits and then leave without ever asking for help” (Miller & Washington, 2009, p. 222).
[Sohail, 2015 ]
— “About 67% of women enjoy shopping, compared to 37% of men (Klein, 1998)
— Women are more likely to buy gifts than men (Yin, 2003)
— Women see shopping as an enjoyable activity whereas men see it as a duty to get their needs met (Durakbaşa & Cindoğlu, 2002)”
Nelson et al., 2020: “Even when female testosterone is pathologically raised in polycystic ovarian syndrome the values are still a fraction (˜1/20th) of that observed in males.”
More men (assigned at birth) transition into women than vice-versa (Bao & Swaab, 2011). Just as there are more male-to-female transsexuals than female-to-male transsexuals (Bao & Swaab, 2011), more men gamers genderswap to play as women avatars than women gamers genderswap to play as men avatars (Ducheneaut et al., 2006; Isaksson, 2012). In real life, everyone starts out as a developing female in gestation; in videogames, everyone starts out as a digital male in the character creation interface when starting a new game.
A meta-analysis found that gay men are 34% more likely than straight men to be lefties, & lesbians are 91% more likely than straight women to be lefties (Lalumiere et al., 2000). Gays & lesbians are both more likely to be righties than lefties, but they’re more likely to be lefties than straight subjects.
Siblings of transgender individuals are more likely to be transgender than siblings of non-transgender individuals (Gomez-Gil et al., 2010).
Contraception & Testosterone
Casto et al., 2021: “Among female university athletes, OC users had significantly lower testosterone levels than non-users due to the testosterone suppressing effects of OC use” (Kathleen Casto et al., 2021).
Most women using combined oral contraception (or OC) experience a reduction in testosterone levels (Z.Y., & MJ Eijkemans, et al., 2014).”
Lesbians are less likely to be taking any contraceptive method than straight women (Charlton et al., 2019) & they have higher testosterone than straight women (Gartrell et al., 1977; Juster et al., 2016; Loraine, 1971; see also Emma Eklund et al., 2020).”
“Women have out-voted men since 1980, but men out-donate women in political campaigns. Men gave more money than women to candidates in statewide elections for executive offices such as attorney general and secretary of state, between 2001 and 2020.
We found that men contribute more financially overall in statewide races, creating a large gender gap in political voice. This disparity exists in primary and general elections, across both political parties, and is seen in the most recent election cycle from 2017 to 2021” (Kira Sanbonmatsu & Claire Gothreau, 2021).”
Compromise & Peace Agreements
— It is increasingly acknowledged that the inclusion of women in peace negotiations make them more likely to become agreements & more durable over time
(Addams, 2021; Buranajaroenkij, 2020; Chrystia Freeland, 2017; Desirée Nilsson, 2012; Julianne Windham, 2019 ; Krause et al., 2018; Nazary et al., 2020; O’Reilly et al., 2015; Pelham et al., 2021; Thania Paffenholz et al., 2016).
An unpublished study by Laurel Stone (2015) found that, of 182 peace agreements signed between 1989 & 2011, the one’s that included women enjoyed greater success (Stone, 2015). When women are part of peace negotiations, agreements are 20% more likely to last at least 2 years & 35% more likely to last 15 years (Laurel Stone, 2015).
“Women and nonbinary adults are less likely to identify as strong sports fans compared with men (Knoester & Allison, 2021). Specifically, lesbians and straight women seem to self-identify similarly as sports fans; in contrast, gays seem markedly less likely than straight men to identify as strong sports fans.”
— Sports contexts have become more welcoming of lesbians & gay men over the past 10–20 years
(Anderson, 2009; Anderson & Bullingham, 2015; Anderson et al., 2016; Bullingham & Postlethwaite, 2018; Cashmore & Cleland, 2011, 2012; Caudwell, 1999, 2003, 2007; Chawansky & Francombe, 2011; Cleland, 2014, 2015, 2018; Cleland & Magrath, 2019; Cleland et al., 2018; Cox & Thompson, 2001; Drury, 2011; Krane, 2018; Magrath, 2017, 2018a, 2018b; Stott, 2018).
Indeed, “the rise of the internet and social media which has given a range of stakeholders (fans, media, players, activists) a platform to comment on LGBT issues and policies in the context of sport.
Skogvang and Fasting (2013) illustrate how women footballers challenge hegemonic femininity by having multiple identities that move between different characteristics of masculinity and femininity”
(Jamie Cleland et al., 2021).
“The WNBA’s large following among the LGBT community has been well known. The league studied its fan base closely in 2012 and identified that 25% of WNBA fans were lesbians (Morris, 2014), while statistics could be higher for some teams such as NY Liberty reporting 40% (Kort, 2002). However, the league had not publicly acknowledged the fact and made it a part of its marketing strategy until 2014.
The LGBT market is largely comprised of “dinks” meaning double income with no kids, which has resulted in some marketers calling the LGBT consumer segment a “dream market” (Bagnall, 2011). In addition, a WNBA market research study found that 25% of lesbians watch the league’s games on TV, while 21% have attended a game (Associated Press, 2014)”
(Mumcu & Lough, 2017).
Women live longer than men in every human country.
Dieting & Consumption
The highest rates of anorexia are among people seeking men: straight women & gay men (Abed et al., 2012; Li et al., 2010; Shelby Hughes et al., 2020).
Mothers tend to be more critical with adolescents (Smolak et al., 1999; Wertheim et al., 1999), including “initiating acne treatment, orthodontic treatment, and changes of hair-style” (Striegel-Moore & Kearney-Cooke, 1994), & regarding daughter’s weight/appearance (Field et al., 2005; Haworth-Hoeppner, 2000; Kathryn Miller, 2021; Marianne Pelletier, 2012; Nichter, 2000).
Women use sunscreen more often than men (Halmon et al., 2015)
Holman, D. M., Berkowitz, Z., Guy Jr, G. P., Hawkins, N. A., Saraiya, M., & Watson, M. (2015). Patterns of sunscreen use on the face and other exposed skin among US adults. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 73(1), 83–92.
Women More Likely to Be insured
XX-Xy & Health
A key a sex difference in support networks is that women are more likely than men to have someone available to talk to when they are distressed.
Patriarchal Male Socialization empathizes independence & invulnerability discourages men to ask for help when they need it. As a result they’re unlikely to have developed/nurtured these components of their social networks in the first place.
Health: men are less likely than women to…
- believe in the value of preventive health care
- have a regular physician
- to perform self-exams
- to be concerned about eating healthy
- Women visit the doctor more often
- Women are more likely to search for health info online
Women show higher antibody responses following vaccinations than men (Katie Flanagan et al., 2017).
Women show higher vaccine efficacy than men as vaccinated men have higher influenza rates than vaccinated women (Chambers et al., 2018).
Women tend to get the flu shot at higher rates than men (Buchan & Kwong, 2016; CDC, 2017).
“Women also tend to have greater opportunities for exposure to influenza associated with their traditional gender roles as primary caregivers for children and the elderly or their greater propensity to work in health care or other occupations that may increase the likelihood of exposure (WHO, 2018). Conversely, morbidity and mortality due to influenza are generally thought to be higher among males (the so-called “man flu” phenomenon; Sue, 2017)” (Catherine Chambers et al., 2018).
“Estrogens, particularly estradiol, can function in a pro-inflammatory role, whereas testosterone and progesterone are considered immunosuppressive (Gabriel & Arck, 2014; Klein & Pekosz, 2014; Furman et al., 2014)” (Chambers et al., 2018).
“Men consistently report higher marital satisfaction than women do (Levenson et al., 1993; Schuster et al., 1990; Skolnick, 1986; Umberson et al., 1996). In unsatisfied relationships, wives exhibit lower physical and psychological health compared to their husbands (Levenson et al., 1993). Women also experience more cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) during conflict discussions and recall, as indexed by increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and HR, than males (e.g., Bloor et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2004).
Within troubled relationships, women also have poorer prognosis for surgical recovery, are at a higher risk for cardiac event recurrence, and report more mental and physical health problems than their husbands in U.S. and Swedish societies (Coyne et al., 2001; Horowitz et al., 1997; Kulik & Mahler, 2006; Orth-Gomer et al., 2000).”
Lesbians value IQ in a partner more than straight women (Glass, 2019; Lippa, 2007).
Gay men value financial status in a partner more than straight men (Glass, 2019; Lippa, 2007).
Lesbians place significantly less value on physical attractiveness in a partner than straight men and women do (Bailey et al., 1994; Buss, 1988; Russock, 2011; Smith et al., 2011; Smith & Stillman, 2002).
Among women, lesbians are most likely & straight women are least likely to display their wealth/ resources in attempts to attract or retain a mate (VanderLaan & Vasey, 2008; Neto et al., 2012; Lawson et al., 2014). Straight males engage in conspicuous consumption fitness displays more often (Miller, 2000, 2010).
Men spend more on Valentines
Young women are generally more sexually knowledgeable than young men (Weinstein, Walsh, & Ward, 2008; Coleman & Roker, 1998).
The time between menstruation & ovulation is generally 12.4 days (Bull et al., 2019), and the everage cycle lasts 29.5 days (Treloar, 1967; Treloar, 1981; Butler et al., 1987; Friedmann, 1981; Cutler et al., 1979; Vollman, 1956; Helfrich-Förster et al., 2021).
The menstrual cycle isn’t synchronized with the lunar cycle. Women aren’t werewolves (Charlotte Helfrich-Förster et al., 2021).
Selfies — Gordon Ingram et al. (2019)
Pictures of sporting activities and pets were found only for males, although proportions were low (6%) in both cases, so this difference may not be very reliable. Pictures taken while traveling (e.g., on vacation) were also significantly more common in men (𝛘 2 = 8.1, p = .004). We further found that men were much more likely than women to include a verbal profile description, and to include information about their college major.
There was no significant difference between numbers of photos uploaded by women and men, but certain types of photos were unique to one gender. Links to other social networks did not differ much between genders; however, men tended to include more textual information in their profiles.
Ingram, G. P., Enciso, M. I., Eraso, N., García, M. J., & Olivera-La Rosa, A. (2019). Looking for the Right Swipe: Gender Differences in Self-Presentation on Tinder Profiles. Annual Review of Cybertherapy And Telemedicine 2019, 149.
Why the +
LGBTQIA+ (Lahti & Kolehmainen, 2020)
+ is an acknowledgement of the non-cisgender and non-heterosexual identities that are not included in the initialism.
Gender → “A social arrangement that is constructed by means of dominant discourses, anchored in institutions, negotiated in interactions and integrated into individuals’ identities” (Pfister et al., 2013, p. 860).