The WNBA, Contraception, & Sexuality

Lesbians’ Testosterone > Straight Women’s Testosterone

Testosterone levels and competitiveness peaked around ovulation in athletic women (Crewther & Cook, 2018).
Lesbians already have higher testosterone than straight women (Gartrell et al., 1977; Juster et al., 2016; Loraine, 1971; see also Emma Eklund et al., 2020). Eklund et al. (2017) & Bermon et al., (2018) found higher testosterone was associated with more lean muscle mass & explosiveness for female Olympians.
Contraception Decreases Testosterone
Lesbians are less likely to be taking any contraceptive method than straight women (Charlton et al., 2019) & OCs tend to decrease testosterone levels (Crewther et al., 2015).
Lesbians have wider hands than straight women
, which may help in a sport like Basketball (Martin & Nguyen, 2004). In addition to lesbians having wider hands, “both homosexual male and homosexual females were approximately 0.004 units (or 33%) closer to the opposite sex in arm/stature ratios.”
Lesbians are more likely to have lesbian daughters than straight women
, (Pattatucci & Hamer, 1995) [Intergenerational Transfer of Sexuality]
Schumm (2010) found that LGB parents were far more likely to give birth to LGB children (20.3% of their kids were LGB) than heterosexuals (4.3% of their kids were LGB) (Schumm, 2010). Moreover, lesbians’ biological daughters were more likely to be lesbian & gay men’s biological sons were more likely to be gay (Schumm, 2020).

Imagine if we could do a study comparing the athletic performance of lesbians who aren’t on OCs to straight women who are on OCs…

see Swift-Gallant et al., 2020 — Swift-Gallant, A., Johnson, B. A., Di Rita, V., & Breedlove, S. M. (2020). Through a glass, darkly: Human digit ratios reflect prenatal androgens, imperfectly. Hormones and behavior, 120, 104686.

WNBA Study

We already found lesbian (non-straight) WNBA players to have better performance outcomes on a few metrics than straight women (non-lesbian) (Willis et al., in review —; the strongest effects being lesbians’ better performance in road games & lesbian guards (point guards & shootings guards) higher field goal percentage.

there is a difference in sexual orientation diversity between women’s & men’s professional sports.

To be clear, Diana Taurasi is the GOAT and everyone knows this.

WNBA Sexuality & Race

The WNBA’s White players (n = 28 total; n = 21 coded for sexuality) are marginally more likely to be lesbian (specifically, not straight)* than Black (n = 110 total; n = 74 coded for sexuality) & multiracial players (n = 9 total; n =8 coded for sexuality), χ2 (2, N = 103) = 5.33, p = .🏀7.

Using WNBA2K 🎮 Rosters

The WNBA’s White starters were more likely to be lesbian (specifically, not straight)* than Black starters in both the 2019–2020 regular season, χ2 (1, N = 47) = 4.56 p = .033, and in the videogame WNBA2K21, χ2 (1, N = 38) = 5.27, p = .022.

I’m sure they’d love to open the closet but the hegemonic man-box of toxic masculinity is blocking the door.

Note: there is no significant height difference between lesbians and straight women (Bogaert & Liu, 2013; Coome, 2020)

Bisexual Mate Preferences & Egalitarian Courtship

The benefit of bisexuals is that they can answer mate preference questions that not even lesbian/gay subjects can answer when attempting to cross-validate gender socialization/constructivist, evolutionary, and adaptationist theories.

LG allow for the isolation of biological sex.

For example, there is a gender wage penalty for both straight wives & gestational lesbian wives after giving birth, but it dissipates within a couple of years for lesbians who give birth whereas it persists for much longer among straight women.

Bisexuals allow attraction to be treated as a constant.

For example, heterosexuals are unlikely to have any close opposite-sex friends (or make new ones) while dating or married as that is their sex-of-attraction. Both sexes are the sex-of-attraction for bisexuals, making attraction a mathematical constant. Thus, if we extend the heterosexual logic to its conclusion, we should expect that bisexuals who are dating/married wouldn’t have ANY friends.

Sidenotes (The “Assume Direct Quotes” Section)

Male proposers of casual sex are perceived to have lesser sexual capabilities than female proposers (Conley, 2011).

(Conley et al., 2014)

Both bisexual men & women were more likely to accept proposals for casual sex more from women than from men.

It is only proposals from men that are disproportionately rejected by bisexual women. Data based on actual encounters suggests that they are turning down offers from men more than they turn down offers from women.

Gender differences did not emerge in acceptance rates of actual remembered casual sex offers from women — differences only emerged with regard to actual offers from men.

This is consistent with other research indicating that even gay males don’t want to have penetrative sex with their lovers as much as straight males do with their lovers (de Visser et al., 2003; Grulich et al., 2003; Laumann et al., 1994). Thus, it’s not surprising that bisexual males would also turn down males.

Lesbians’ Lover Sexuality Preferences (Continued))

We did not include lesbian or gay proposals because lesbians have a more strongly negative impression of bisexual women than gay men do of bisexual men (see Rust, 1995).

Androcentrism/ Masculinity Preference

(Thekla Morgenroth et al., 2021)

Lesbians make more than straight women in nearly every country where the lesbian wage premium has been investigated. The assumption that straight women are more feminine/communal & that lesbians are more masculine/agentic leads employers to assume more long term commitment from lesbians & thus a higher salary.

Two Spaces After A Period for Social Distancing

Please remember that at this time it is still permissible to have 2 spaces after a period for social distancing.

Performativity & Erasure

Heterosexual women who engage in performative same-sex kissing for a male audience contribute to the invalidation of those who identify as bisexual (Boyer & Galupo, 2015). “Additionally, women who kissed women are significantly more likely to be perceived as heterosexual than either bisexual or lesbian. Thus, even when same-sex sexual encounters occur they are perceived as heterosexual performance.

Emoji Erasure Chronicles

WHILE I was tweeting the tweet I tweeted below, my emoji’s hair literally changed from brunette to a blonde woman.

Someone’s pronouns, identity, etc should also be reflected in their emoji selection without it glitching 🙇🏻‍♀️

E3. And now I became a male lols

I never use male emojis

Diversity Training Will Be Booming This Autumn

Given the recent series of fan attacks against NBA players & the overall decline in interpersonal racial diversity reported over the past year… diversity rehabilitation & training personnel are going to be working overtime this Fall.

West (2019)

¨In line with social structural theory, participants reported a relative preference for marriage (versus casual sex) with White partners, but a relative preference for casual sex (versus marriage) with racial minorities. This pattern was further modified by sex: men reported a general preference for casual sex (versus marriage) with all racial groups except White partners. Women, however, reported a general preference for marriage (versus casual sex) with all groups, but this preference was strongest for White partners.

Interminority Marriage

Carolyn: Why were Chinese & Mexican couples allowed to get married before Loving v Virginia?

Interracial marriage was NEVER 100% banned. Only interracial marriage that included someone White was banned.

White people weren’t legally allowed to marry anyone who wasn’t the same race & minorities weren’t allowed to marry anyone White.

Lauren Davenport, 2018

Among interminority multiracials, Blasians (Black & Asian) are the most prevalent multiple-minority multiracials in the US as of the 2010 census.

Lauren Davenport, 2016

“Across biracial subgroups and net of all other influences, economic affluence and Jewish identity predict whiter self-identification, whereas belonging to a religion more commonly associated with racial minorities is associated with a minority identification. Gender, however, is the single best predictor of identification, with biracial women markedly more likely than biracial men to identify as multiracial.”

Intergenerational Transfer of Religion (moreso than Atheism)

“A religious identity of “none” is harder to pass on to future generations than religious identities of “something” or “somethings”

Towards Inclusive Catholicism

Jarryd → As a Catholic, my best friends & recent ex are Atheists. I think it’s important that we find space for everyone’s value horizon in our close interpersonal relationships. It seems kind of disingenuous to say one is open to religious diversity in the workplace or school while simultaneously believing that your colleagues/ classmates who disagree with you will burn in Hell for eternity because their belief system differs from yours.

I know that my path involves Jesus Christ but that’s not the only path. Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Atheism, Bahai, & other paths are equally valid.

There’s more than one lane on this highway.

Transracial Adoption Patterns (Kreider & Raleigh, 2011)

Contraception Decreases Testosterone

“Lesbians are the least likely to use any contraceptive method but bisexual women are more than twice as likely as straight women to use long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), a category made up of implants and IUDs (Charlton et al., 2019).

On the Utility of Sports Data (Ertug & Moaret, 2020)

Our investigation also highlights the advantages of using sports data in social science. In our opinion, the biggest advantage is the transparency and replicability of findings. Even though the use of sports data is sometimes criticized based on (contestable) assumptions about narrow generalizability (Wolfe et al., 2005), an open platform of shared data across researchers is highly desirable, as it facilitates exchange among scholars and extensions of each other’s work.

The Institute of Diversity & Ethics in Sports

WNBA 2020 Report Card (PDF)



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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD


I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.