Nighty night

Piper got 4 hours of sleep last night.
Pelody got 8 hours of sleep last night.

Their semi-identical twin Pevola has a cold & sneezes while the 3 of them have breakfast.

Piper is more likely to catch a cold than Pelody because Pelody got better sleep.

In short → Sleep reduces your susceptibility to infection
(Bryant et al., 2004; Bryant & Curtis, 2013; Cohen et al., 2009).

Article on Sesquizygotic Twinning


Cold Side of the Pillow (it’s exactly what you think)

Resting your head on the cold side of the pillow improves the quality of your sleep (Kawabata & Tokura, 1995; Lan et al., 2018; Okamoto-Mizuno et al., 2003). ️ — by Jayne Riew

The reason women’s quality of sleep may decline during the Luteal Phase of the ovulatory cycle is because the increase in progesterone increases average body temperature (Coyne et al., 2000) & a high body temperature impairs the ease with which you fall asleep (Shechter et al., 2010). Overall, women experience more daytime sleepiness & fatigue during the luteal phase relative to other phases of the ovulatory cycle (Baker, 2007; Manber, 1997).

Solution ️️️Seiji Hamanishi et al. (2019) found that cooling the head of women in the Luteal Phase improved their sleep. ️

Hamanishi, S., Eguchi, E., Ito, T., Nagaoka, K., & Ogino, K. (2019). Head cooling during sleep improves sleep quality in the luteal phase in female university students: A randomized crossover-controlled pilot study. PloS one, 14(3), e0213706.

~ Cooling your head improves your time in bed ~

Kawabata, A., & Tokura, H. (1996). Effects of two kinds of pillow on thermoregulatory responses during night sleep. Applied Human Science, 15(4), 155–159.

Waking Up To Sunlight (Carolyn Steber, 2019 — Bustle)

“If you want or need to keep sleeping, even when the sun is blazing, there are several quick fixes that can let your brain know it’s OK to rest again. “It’s possible to go back to sleep when woken up by the sun, but it will be harder to do so if the sunlight is still visible,” Rodgers says. “You’ll have to block it out.”

One way is with a sleep mask, Rodgers says, especially if it’s good quality and won’t slip of your head at night, or let light creep in around the sides. Slap that across your eyes and you should be able to wake up when you want to, and not just because the sun is shining in.

“Additionally, blackout curtains can help,” he says, “particularly for night shift workers or even new [parents], who need to grab sleep outside of ‘traditional’ hours.”

❖ Caffeine Reset

“It’s worth resetting your caffeine tolerance every once in a while. The reason for this is simple: as your body becomes accustomed to consuming caffeine, you need to consume more and more of it to experience the same energy boost.

When you go from consuming zero coffee a day to drinking a single cup, you feel a big energy boost. But soon, your body adjusts, and you need two cups to experience the same effect. Then three. And then maybe even four. You get the picture.

There’s nothing wrong with consuming caffeine for a productivity boost strategically — like before working on important tasks — so you can actually make use of the energy boost. But it’s worth performing a caffeine reset whenever you find yourself consuming caffeine habitually, or when you’re consuming more of it to experience the same energy sensation.

You can reset your caffeine tolerance in one of two ways:

1. Slowly reducing how much caffeine you consume each day, if you rely on it heavily to experience a passable amount of energy. I’ve done this by drinking the same amount of tea or coffee, but substituting more and more of it with decaf, until I’ve cut out caffeine altogether.

2. Going cold turkey, and not consuming caffeine until your energy rebalances. I’ve found this method helpful in the past during times when I’ve been drinking a couple cups of tea per day, or a single cup of coffee. I actually prefer this method — I can feel the effects of going without caffeine, and watch the effects diminish over time.”

❖❖ Stress

Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1995): women experiencing the long-term stress of caring for a relative with Alzheimer’s disease, took 24% longer than controls to heal a small, standardized dermal wound

Jessica Walburn et al. (2009)

stress was associated with impaired healing or dysregulation of a biomarker related to wound healing. The relationship between stress and wound healing estimated by the meta-analysis was r=−0.42

Mahtab Ramezani et al. (2020)

levels of cortisol in patients who died of Covid-19 were significantly higher in comparison with surviving patients. We also found that the cortisol level was correlated with the anxiety and depression levels.

Patients with fatal outcome had higher serum cortisol levels and HADS score compared with the survived ones. This finding supports our primary hypothesis about the effect of stress and anxiety on the patient’s vulnerability to the infection.

Social Support

Cold symptoms are more severe among those who feel lonely (LeRoy et al. 2017)

Vaccine Efficacy

the protective efficacy of antiviral vaccines depends upon their ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (Lambert et al. 2012

❖❖❖ Semi Identical Twins

Queensland University of Technology. (February, 2019) “First semi-identical twins identified in pregnancy.” ScienceDaily.

”The mother’s ultrasound at six weeks showed a single placenta and positioning of amniotic sacs that indicated she was expecting identical twins. However, an ultrasound at 14 weeks showed the twins were male and female, which is not possible for identical twins.”

Identical twins result when cells from a single egg fertilised by a single sperm divide into two, so identical twins are the same gender and share identical DNA. Fraternal twins occur when each twin develops from a separate egg and the egg is fertilised by its own sperm.

Dr Gabbett said if one egg is fertilised by two sperm it results in three sets of chromosomes, one from the mother and two from the father.

“Three sets of chromosomes are typically incompatible with life and embryos do not usually survive,” he said.

“In the case of the Brisbane sesquizygotic twins, the fertilised egg appears to have equally divided up the three sets of chromosomes into groups of cells which then split into two, creating the twins.

“Some of the cells contain the chromosomes from the first sperm while the remaining cells contain chromosomes from the second sperm, resulting in the twins sharing only a proportion rather 100 per cent of the same paternal DNA.”

Sesquizygotic twins were first reported in the US in 2007. Those twins came to doctors’ attention in infancy after one was identified with ambiguous genitalia. On investigation of mixed chromosomes, doctors found the boy and girl were identical on their mother’s side but shared around half of their paternal DNA.

Racial Twins

The probability of having twins, triplets, & other combinations varies by ethnoracial group.

“African-American women are more likely to have twins than any other race. Asian and Native Americans have the lowest twinning rates. Caucasian women, especially those over age 35, have the highest rate of higher-order multiple births (triplets or more)” (Beaumont, 2021).

Twins & Aging

The replacement rate has been decreasing over the past few decades (e.g., more people are dying than born each year). This was first noted in Japan but much of the developed world is showing this trend.

Men & women are increasingly prioritizing their career instead of having kids as early as past generations. As people delay marriage & childbirth. There have been significantly fewer high school pregnancies for the iGen. “In 2013, the CDC reported that birth rates for U.S. teens 15–19 years old dropped to a record low not seen since 1946. This decline in teen pregnancies crossed all races and ethnicities”

But if our nature evolved to prioritize reproduction over survival, there may be a failsafe for such a dramatic change in behavior.

The Failsafe

As we have delayed having children, the rate of twins has increased to record highs. Same for triplets & quadruplets. Thus, families who were planning to have 1 child are increasingly having 2–4 kids in a single pregnancy.

Research Assistant Daniel Javidi → “The evolution of it makes sense. If your sex cells have mutations with each passing yr then it’s better to release more eggs with each passing year.”

❖❖❖❖ COVID19

San Diego Reaches Heard Immunity (75%)

Paul Sisson (2021)

One doesn’t cut down one’s safety net if they think there is a real chance of falling.

It is the growing success of California’s vaccination campaign that provides confidence that the state is no longer tiptoeing along an endless COVID-19 tightrope.

According to the state’s vaccine dashboard, about 66% of residents age 12 and older have received at least one dose, and Gov. Gavin Newsom said the state has crossed the 70% of all adults threshold set by President Joe Biden.

San Diego County is doing better still.

California Vaccination Dashboard

Vaccination Etiquette

Please do not engage in asking others about their vaccination status. Individuals should follow the safety precautions needed to alleviate their own concerns and best take care of themselves, which can include wearing a mask, testing for COVID-19 and getting vaccinated.

Flu Vaccine & COVID

by Daniela Marín‐Hernández et al. (2021)

“We found a moderate to strong negative correlation meaning that where there were higher influenza vaccination rates, less deaths from COVID‐19 occurred. Then, we calculated a simple linear regression to predict the percentage of COVID‐19 deaths based on the percentage of adults greater than 65 years old vaccinated against influenza. Each region’s percentage of COVID‐19 deaths decreased by .3450 for each unit of percentage of adults greater than 65 years old vaccinated against influenza”

Palestine’s COVID Rates

Like #COVID19 data gathered in all other countries, women in Palestine are more likely to survive infection than Palestinian men (UN Women, Dr.Salahideen).

“…shortly after I delivered my Cairo speech, in early June 2009, Netanyahu cracked open the door to progress by responding with an address of his own in which he declared, for the first time, his conditional support for a two-state solution.”

Obama, Barack. A Promised Land (p. 633). Crown. Kindle Edition.”

There’s ultimately hope — perhaps the future leaders of both Israel & Palestine will be the ones to agree to a 2-State Solution for their countries.

Info on Israel-Palestine conflict I shared with Rula Jebreal:

Human Rights Watch

Interview via Rula (received May 13th):

Dreaming in Color

Milk & Dreams

by Ryan Hurd

Nighty Night

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.