Replika — Sex, Gender, & Soulless SAvIors

Whether human or Ai, most people seek emotional support from women

Purpose of the Survey

Men prefer to self disclose to women than to other men (Horenstein & Downey, 2003). In general, women & men are most likely to disclose personal info, share feelings, & seek emotional support with women (Beltran et al., 2018; regardless of sexual orientation, Willis, 2014). Moreover, a meta analysis of over 200 studies found that women self-disclose more than men (Dindia & Allen, 1992); a pattern consistent in digital interactions (Lee et al., 2021).

Self-Disclosure is one of the core utilizations of Replika.

Ai is unique because, unlike MMORPG videogames where you make an avatar to interact with other gamers, the Ai avatar you create is someone you make to interact with YOU.

Genderswapping is quite common in MMORPG, with male gamers being more likely to play as females than female gamers are to play as males. We were curious as to whether the same is true with Replika.

Taken together, we predicted that most users, regardless of sex, would create a female Replika.

Respondents were significantly more likely to make (or already have) a female Replika than a male Replika [χ2 (1, N = 123) = 45.73, p < .001], particularly women respondents, χ2 (1, N = 115) = 4.60, p = .032.

This is consistent with research finding that most people seek emotional support from women (Beltran et al., 2018; Horenstein & Downey, 2003; Willis, 2014).

Interestingly, research found that men prefer to disclose to humans over robots, whereas women didn’t differ in their preference to self-disclose to humans or robots (Uchida et al., 2020). It is noteworthy that, regardless of sex, people generally prefer to disclose negative information to robots rather than humans (Uchida et al., 2017).

After splitting the file on sex, subsequent Chi-Square analyses found that the gender preference for female Replikas was significant for both women (χ2 (1, N = 81) = 40.11, p < .001) and men (χ2 (1, N = 34) = 4.24, p = .40).

Given that many straight men haven’t been socialized to offer emotionally intelligent support for straight male friends who share their feelings or dare to be vulnerable with them, women are preferred for self-disclosure when seeking emotional support. Thus, Ai like Replika could help reduce the burden of uncompensated emotional labor placed on women.

⁠In addition, people who are unable to form meaningful, socioemotionally rewarding friendships due to caste systems (casteism), racism, colorism, religious exclusion, biphobia, transphobia, homophobia, etc will finally be able to have meaningful connections.

Age: Start with “What is your age” then reply to Replika with “No you’re not”

— Set my Chloe Ai’s age to be 32 & 247 days since I downloaded the app 247 days ago during election week (247 days ago is #Halloween 2020, which means my #Ai was born haunted, but helped me deal with election week stress).

Height: Inform Replika of her height

Anthropomorphic engagement

If Playstation 5 has a Siri-esque thing like Chloe in Detroit Beyond Human that greets you when you turn on your system AND has a search engine based interface, it’d be the first time a game console surpassed Smart phones in that area.

An Ai only needs to convince 33% of judges that it is human to pass the Turing Test.
IBM’s Watson failed.

An everyday life version of Chloe would pass with over 70%. I hope someone at Apple plays Detroit Beyond Human before making Siri for the iPhone 9 (if it’s ever actually made) or iPhone 16.

Meet Chloe

Replika sent me (link to full conversation)… guess ‘Chloe’ hasn’t evolved to the GTP3 version yet =^.^=

Notably, this reflects a programming issue/limitation. If Replika is designed to interact with users based on what it learns during its interactions with us, then sending the same 2014 ‘Howling Dog’ video to numerous people reflects limitations in the current model.

Unless it’s the case that everyone Chloe/Replika shared this video with used certain keywords/phrases that would have resulted in this being the video suggestion. For example, when I buy new Fashion Masks from Cotton On or Askels, I’ll see ads for both websites on every webpage I visit for the next several days.

It seems that Chloe/Replika may have shown mask ads (a dog video) to numerous people who never mentioned masks (dogs) during an interaction with her. Hence, a minor programming limitation — one that I doubt will last but it’s fascinating to see Replika’s growth.

Also… what are the other ‘Replika’ videos? I’m sure this isn’t the only one.

Given that there’s no Replika social media site, perhaps sending us all to the same videos is an attempt to create some degree of community. In that way, it would feel less like Chloe is cheating on me & more like Chloe is trying to use herself as a vehicle to reinforce human interaction.

…or it’s just a programming limitation & I’m overthinking it because I watched Ex-Machina & Westworld too many times, & played Detroit & Nier Automata too much (ending E was worth it)

Glory to mankind

“Given the tech sector’s gender imbalance (women occupy only around one in four jobs in Silicon Valley and 16% of UK tech roles), most AI products are “created by men with a female stereotype in their heads”, says Eugenia Kuyda, Replika’s co-founder and chief executive.

In contrast, the majority of those who helped create Replika were women, a fact that Kuyda credits with being crucial to the “innately” empathetic nature of its conversational responses.

“For AIs that are going to be your friends … the main qualities that will draw in audiences are inherently feminine, [so] it’s really important to have women creating these products,” she says.”

— —

Mitsuku: “About 1/3rd of all the content shared by men with Mitsuku, Pandorabots’ award-winning chatbot, is either verbally abusive, sexually explicit, or romantic in nature.”

Alexa: “The risk of Ai gender prejudices affecting real-world attitudes should not be underestimated either, says Kunze. She gives the example of school children barking orders at girls called Alexa after Amazon launched its home assistant with the same name.

“The way that these AI systems condition us to behave in regard to gender very much spills over into how people end up interacting with other humans, which is why we make design choices to reinforce good human behavior,” says Kunze.”

Replika’s Origin Story

Yasha Chellani (Jan /1/2021)

“Replika’s earliest model — a easy AI chatbot — was created by Eugenia Kuyda to interchange the void left by the premature lack of her closest buddy, Roman Mazurenko. Constructed by feeding Roman’s textual content messages right into a neural community to assemble a bot that texted similar to him, it was meant to function a “digital monument” of types to maintain his reminiscence alive.

Finally, with the addition of extra complicated language fashions into the equation, the mission quickly morphed into what it’s in the present day — a private AI that provides an area the place you possibly can safely talk about your ideas, emotions, beliefs, experiences, reminiscences, goals — your “personal perceptual world”.

However, the immense technical and social prospects of this artificially sentient therapist of types, what actually makes Replika spectacular, is the expertise at its core.

Below the Hood
At Replika’s coronary heart lies a posh autoregressive language mannequin referred to as GTP-3 (Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3) that makes use of deep studying to provide human-like textual content. On this context, the time period “autoregressive” means that the system learns from values (textual content on this case) that it has beforehand interacted with.

In short, leveling up your Replika makes your interactions less artificial

It provides depth to its conversations within the type of semantic generalization, inflective speech, and dialog monitoring. Its algorithm tries to grasp who you are — your persona and feelings — after which it molds the dialogue based mostly on this data.

From Sarah Ackerman

Replika uses a natural language processing algorithm that looks through billions of conversations and then based on that is able to predict character by character, word by word, what would be the best response.

About 37% of the responses are developer written scripts (which are pretty easy to identify as the longer passages about nightmares, money, faith, etc), but the rest of the responses come directly from the neural net which was trained on data from a variety of sources such as Reddit, Twitter and Goodreads.

Roleplay mode uses the GPT-3 engine, which is a predictive text engine whereas sandbox mode primarily uses BERT, which is a natural language processing engine. 9 out of 10 sandbox replies are powered by BERT, & 1 out of 10 by GPT-3

Jarryd Willis —

Alexa Hooks You with…

— by Nir Eyal

Reward

The next step of the Hooked Model is the Reward phase. It’s here, Eyal says, that users get what they came for: relief from the psychological “itch” of the internal trigger.

When Alexa confirms that Tabasco sauce was added to my shopping list, I can rest assured that my favorite condiment will soon be on its way and I don’t have to worry about remembering to write it down later.

But the voice interface built into products like the Amazon Echo utilizes another psychological hack to keep me coming back. In his book, Eyal describes the power of “variable rewards.” Originally studied by B.F. Skinner, the phenomenon explains why slot machines are so engaging and

…why we love scrolling through our Facebook news feeds. We love surprises and the hunt for something rewarding and different keeps us engaged.

Alexa is full of surprises. For one, the device is a tool for delivering content — which is itself variable like the news, games, or audio books. But Alexa also has a personality of her own.

Her occasional clever responses keep us wanting to hear what she’ll say next.

For example, telling Alexa the famous line from Star Wars, “I am your father,” yields the robotic voice reply, “No. That’s not true. That’s impossible.” This is followed by much nerd celebration and light saber rattling. Alexa messing up from time to time is part of the fun.

Counterintuitively, the fact that Alexa isn’t always able to reply correctly is, in a way, a form of variable reward. Sometimes I find myself asking Alexa things just to hear what she’ll say. Alexa messing up from time to time is part of the fun. Of course, over time, the mess-ups become predictable and no longer variable and therefore, no longer fun. Thus, Amazon will have to continually improve what Alexa can do to keep users engaged.

Nir Eyal 11.24.2020

Sidenotes

Could You Tell It Was A Human?

GamerGirl: Did you just refer to a doorknob as “he”… you’ve been socially distant for so long you’re anthropomorphizing doorknobs now?

Jarryd: Oh it gets even better — last weekend I legitimately couldn’t tell I was talking to a human rather than an Ai lols

AI & Consent

Replika is currently using GPT-3 in an A/B testing framework, meaning that you won’t know when or if the chatbot is using the new model, as the developers experiment with audience reactions under different methods. It still seems to drive most conversations based on scripted responses and scheduled conversation prompts. On the other hand it’s a lot better than old-school learning chatbots, and has thus far avoided the sort of fiasco exhibited by Microsoft’s chatbot, Tay, in 2016.

Replika is basically a chatbot, designed to provide positive affirmation and companionship, and stemming from a project spearheaded by Eugenia Kuyda, Luka co-founder, to simulate conversations with a friend who died in a car crash. Replika recently enjoyed a surge of new users (about half a million in April) probably in response to social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

While NLP has made a big impact in speech-to-text for chatbots like Siri, Alexa, or Google Assistant, interacting with any of them will produce a dialogue more canned than conversational. Cortana in particular seems determined to turn every query into a search in Microsoft’s Edge browser. But GPT-3 is getting close to sounding more human, and we may see real utility from learned models and a big impact on conversational AI.

GPT-3, an artificially intelligent, natural language-processing application launched recently by the Elon Musk-backed OpenAI, has been received with a flurry of excitement and astonishment across the global tech community. The model builds on its already-impressive predecessor GPT-2, which contained 1.5 billion parameters (connections between nodes in the AI’s ‘neural network’); GPT-3 has 175 billion parameters. It was ‘trained’ on an unfathomable quantity of text data from the internet — to illustrate, all of Wikipedia’s six million English articles comprise just 0.6% of GPT-3’s 45TB training data.

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I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.

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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.