Medium-versary (Thank You Medium)
I posted my first Medium piece a year ago today. 100 Articles in year 1. Here’s the first of year 2.
Here are a few feel good reflections & [too random to be described] from the past year.
I’m a Black Xy male & I didn’t file an official complaint about the #racialprofiling on December 16th until February 24th — over 2 months later. If processing #RacialTrauma was that difficult/complex for me, imagine how difficult it is for women reporting #SexualAssault is for women.
Must Be Lying 🤦🏻♀️
The fact that it took me 2 months to file an official complaint didn’t make my complaint any less true — something I’m thankful to #Siri for (keep her charged because #SiriIsAWitness). I was telling the truth & the day on the calendar when I shared it didn’t change that. #UCSD took key actions to ensure my physical safety & assist with trauma recovery (peace of mind takes the longest to heal).
Women who don’t report for 2 months, or 2 years, or longer are also telling the truth.
1968 Olympics Human Rights Salute
The two Black athletes in this 1968 Olympic image (Tommie Smith & John Carlos) were given the gloves they’re wearing from the White ally next to them, Australian Peter Norman.
Unfortunately, Peter Norman is often left out of discussions of this moment.
Part of building a coalition of allies requires acknowledging & honoring the acts of allies along the way.
Keeping Up With Allyship
Let’s Discuss East Korea (A GamerGirl Story)
GamerGirl: Why do we separate East Asian & South Asian Indian but not Southeast Asian in research?
An explanation doesn’t suggest it wouldn’t be useful to do so, or that it won’t be considered in future studies.
GamerGuy: At this time, East Asia & Southeast Asia are more similar to each other than either is to India. This is especially true regarding some of the core identity variables in our research — discourses centered on interracial relations (East Asia/ Southeast Asia  & India ) as opposed to interethnic relations (East Asia , India , & Southeast Asia ).
Moreover, most Asian American curriculums tend to teach East Asian (and Southeast Asian) culture, whereas Indian culture usually isn’t included.
GamerGirl: Wait, so part of the issue is that American curriculums tend to skip India all through high school, which indirectly causes the erasure of the unique cultural distinctions & histories of Southeast Asia because we woke up one Tuesday & decided the Philippines & China were in the same city?
GamerGuy: ………it was a Thursday. Anywhooooo, let’s discuss East Korea.
GamerGirl: Are you from Alabama?
Woman Like Me
Giving a presentation on GamerGirl was one of the highlights of the year
19 Reasons Why
…will be finished at some point this year.
The results suggest that at least some facets of modern race bias are by-products of an evolved system predisposing women to avoid persons and situations perceived as dangerous, particularly when costs are high.
The system may rely on socially transmitted information regarding the potential for danger from men of particular groups in the local environment, producing greater race bias when fertility rises.
¨Women may be equipped with mechanisms that increase their interest in outergroup men during the fertile window as a way to increase their potential exposure to males with optimally distinct genes, and thus reap the fitness benefits of increased genetic heterogeneity in offspring (e.g., Roberts & Little, 2008).
¨One of the most prevalent forms of gendered racism that Black men face is rooted in the stereotype that they are hypermasculine and prone to sexual violence (Beckley, 2008; Ferber, 2007; Hall, 2001).
¨Stereotypes of Black men (e.g., aggressive and sexual predators) are qualitatively different from stereotypes about Black women and men from other racial groups (Collins, 2004; Wong et al., 2013)
— a coercion-avoidance pattern has been detected primarily with Blacks as the outergroup,
— whereas a genetic-diversity pattern has been detected with Hispanics as the outergroup
Curlism: Black Women & Hair (assume direct quotes)
[All a direct quote] → “Throughout history, women have been pressured to subject themselves to Eurocentric beauty standards that are for the most part defined and reinforced by a dominant culture and affect all women regardless of race (Patton, 2006; White, 2005; Thompson, 2009). While this is true for all women, it is even more persistent in black women’s lives (White, 2005). Black women have constantly been compared to white women as the latter is considered to be the ideal of beauty. For this very reason, there is an incredible amount of pressure for black women to conform to the dominant Eurocentric beauty standards (White, 2005; Patton, 2006; Tate, 2007).
Often times, media portray white women with straight hair as the beauty ideal. The few black women who are featured usually have Caucasian traits such as light skin and straight hair (White, 2005; Patton, 2006; Lester, 2000). Thompson (2009) added that even in media directed to black people, most ads are about relaxers and the products women with relaxed hair use.
Byrd and Tharps (2001) noted that hair was very important in Africa and was, in many tribes, a way to show one’s status, identity, religion, and ancestry. The importance of hair in determining one’s status became even more apparent during slavery in the United States as black women with a kinky hair texture had to work in the fields while those with a more Caucasian like hair texture were house slaves (Robinson, 2011; Lester, 2000). However, despite their looser hair texture, house enslaved Africans still had to take a step further in order to be presentable as white masters had control over them and forced them to have an image as close to white as possible (Thompson, 2008).
Therefore, emulating white standards of beauty for body image and particularly for hair meant having more status, the possibility to pass as white, become free and even survival in some instances (Patton, 2006).
The mixed children from slave masters had looser, straighter and softer hair considered “good hair”, which added to the pressure African Americans experienced to appear as white as they could (Tate, 2007).
That helps understand how black people’s need to alter their natural hair came about and still persists in our times. Often times hair-relaxing starts at an early age among African American women as their hair is chemically straightened starting around six years old (Bellinger, 2007).
Hair relaxing can inform one’s socioeconomic status as African American women who are of upper-class status often wear their hair straightened (Bellinger, 2007, Thompson, 2008). Over the course of years, women with straight hair have been viewed as the beauty norm both in Northern America and within the African and the African American communities (Tate, 2007; Patton, 2006; Etemesi, 2007; Robinson 2011). Black women are taught that their natural hair is not good and black girls are raised to understand that their natural hair is wrong compared to white girls’ (Banks, 2000; Thompson, 2009) as their mothers often alter it chemically or with hot combs when they have to go to church or for holidays (White, 2005).
Eurocentric beauty standards seem to be so ingrained in Western societies that they are, in various instances, institutionalized to the point where the way a black woman wears her hair can determine what kind of job she can have and whether or not she can keep the job. Indeed, in most enterprises in the Western world, straight hair is considered more professional and presentable while natural hair is considered unkempt (Thompson, 2009).
For this reason, Patton (2006) insisted that it has been even harder for black women with natural hair to secure jobs as their hair often does not conform to “corporate grooming policies” that deem afros, dreadlocks, braids and such styles as unprofessional, radical and subversive. Women who wear their hair natural also face the risk of being labeled as masculine or not straight. White (2005), Thompson (2009), Bellinger (2007) and Etemesi (2007) pointed out that some ways black women with natural hair are perceived by other races as well as by African Americans include being considered of lower-class status, childish, Afrocentric and outspoken. Wearing one’s natural hair is considered a strategy of resistance to white beauty standards and also a connection to African roots and heritage (Banks, 2000).
White’s (2005) research relevantly exposes some of the motivations for women’s hair choices. She found that, for many women, the decision to wear their hair in its natural state is a process of change in the way they define themselves and also a journey to “self-discovery” that gives a sense of pride and strength. However, it is important not to fall in the stereotypical idea that all women who have natural hair are trying to make a political statement.
The same is true for women with relaxed hair because their choice is often assumed to mean self-hatred and loss of identity when in fact it is a matter of convenience as relaxed hair is often considered to be more manageable and less time-consuming (Etemesi, 2007; Banks, 2000). Not every woman who relaxes her hair is trying to emulate white beauty standard (Lester, 2000; Thompson, 2008).
Due to the context of oppression in which it was created and promoted, it is understandable to view hair relaxers as alienating black women. However, relaxers have evolved to be part of black culture and do not necessarily equal self-hatred anymore, rather they can also “serve to counterpoliticize the signifier of ethnic and racial devalorization and challenge definitions of blackness as defined by hegemonic culture” (Thompson, 2008, p.847). The existing literature shows that different hair choices can be motivated by different factors and “it is difficult to conclude that wearing one’s hair straightened or natural is a polarized act of either embracing ethnic pride or demonstrative of a poor self-image (White, 2005, p. 298). Our research is thus very important, as it will help better understand the motivations behind black women hair choices.”
[May include in a standalone piece in the future. If you know my Medium patterns, you know this will likely be reposted in its own right when time permits. Right now time constricts, as it is want to do.]
Coming soon: Of curlism & texturism…
(Once upon a time in Texas, I had dreadlocks & my nickname was Trunks… from Dragonball Z. I know, I’m a nerd.)
E-perceptions in the Context of Business ‘Mating’
Zeeland & Henseler, 2021
In the context of business impression management, it is relevant that cues evoke approach-motivated behaviors. How else can business relationships emerge from online profiles? While online impression management generally has attracted much attention, online impression management in a business context has been left behind, despite its strong economic relevance. Since our economy is turning into a platform-based network economy, the emergence of business relationships is becoming increasingly important for the survival and growth of businesses. In a world in which being connected appears to be the central theme, we need to know more about the emergence of interpersonal business connections.
Business relationships are often compared to romantic relationships (Dwyer et al., 1987; Perrien and Ricard, 1995; Johnston and Hausman, 2006), yet concerning business relationships we know more about the marriage than about the first eye contact. Liking comes before loving, and this process of business ‘mating’ is described as a process in which “the characteristics of firms forming relations are not randomly matched but result from a process of assortative mating.” (Wilkinson et al., 2005, p. 677), and is therefore comparable to romantic mating. As with romantic mating, business partners should first be aware of one another, and for this awareness, one must be attractive enough to draw the other’s attention (Dwyer et al., 1987; Mortensen, 2012). However, in the context of business mating, we don’t know in detail what attracts the other, and there is a hiatus concerning the elements that attract the other in an online environment. We seek to contribute to this knowledge from the perspective of communication psychology. This knowledge is not only of academic relevance, but is predominantly of practical relevance, because it advances professionals in their ways of being an attractive business partner (Murphy and Sashi, 2018).
Biracial individuals are more open to the idea of crossing the color line when it comes to seeking a suitable spouse compared to their monoracial counterparts (Bratter 2007; King & Bratter 2007; Qian & Lichter 2007).
The Salad Bowl That Never Mixes
Post-COVID: Returning to In-Person Diversity
Aside for MultiRacial, people in interracial relationships, bisexuals (who have a strong interracial dating preference), & athletes (in team sports), we’ve collectively just lived the least diverse *in-person year* of our lives.
A plurality of UC San Diego students in objectively diverse classes reported their interactions have been less diverse this year while interacting on Zoom.
Lunch is usually the most diverse time of day but we haven’t had happy hour, chats in the break room, small talk waiting in line for boba in over a year
It’s hard to build & maintain closeness in long-distance relationships as the time apart increases, & humanity has been in a long distance relationship with itself for the past year. Thus, I think the lack of in-person diverse interactions over the past year should be considered a part of the general public’s readjustment/ rehabilitation in adulting settings as citizens in diverse countries return to normal. Diverse interactions on Zoom don’t compare to in-person (even with the camera on).