Interpersonal Racial Diversity During Quarantine vs In-Person

Figure 1

Most students indicated that the interpersonal diversity in their lives remained the same during #Quarantine. Among those indicating a change, more indicated a decline than an increase.

Figure 2

Dual-Identifying Multiracials & monoracial allies* were more likely to indicate that their interpersonal interactions became less diverse during quarantine, though this may be because they had more diverse circles to begin with. For instance, they’re also the two groups least likely to indicate that most of their bonds are monoracial. Especially dual-identifying multiracials who indicated that only 10.9% of their bonds remained mostly monoracial.

Figure 1
Figure 2

Sidenotes (assume direct quotes).

Groups Merely sharing the same space do not equal integration

The macroecological picture of intergroup relations isn’t reflective of processes of informal segregation occurring at the microecological level of intergroup relations which occur in “every-day life spaces” (Clack et al., 2005).

HS Cafeteria (White table, Asian table, Black table, Hispanic table…)

Aside for athletes who play team sports — who reliably produce the most diverse tables during lunchtime — interracial interactions are consistently lower than one would expect by chance (McCauley et al., 2001). Female student groups were 50% are likely to eat at racially diverse tables during lunch, consistent with research indicating that straight women tend to have more homophilous ethnoracial preferences segregated than men (Sagar, Schofield, & Snyder, 1983; Schofield & Sagar, 1977; Singleton & Asher, 1977).

Multiracial Hypodescent Patterns (Danielle Young et al., 2020)

There is research that clearly demonstrates hypodescent patterns in the racial categorization of multiracial and racially ambiguous individuals today (e.g., Freeman et al., 2016; Ho et al., 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017; Krosch et al., 2013; Peery & Bodenhausen, 2008, S1; Roberts & Gelman, 2015). However, some work demonstrates that multiracial targets are categorized into groups other than their socially subordinate identity, such as multiracial (e.g., Chen & Hamilton, 2012; Pauker, Carpinella, et al., 2018; Peery & Bodenhausen, 2008, S2). Research also reveals the existence of alternative categorization patterns (e.g., minority bias; Chen, Pauker, et al., 2018) or suggests that categorization patterns can vary across racial group membership due to a perceiver’s lifetime exposure to different racial groups (and thus provides evidence both consistent and inconsistent with hypodescent (e.g., attention theory; Halberstadt et al., 2011). In sum, evidence for hypodescent is mixed and to date there has not been a systematic evaluation of the methods and results from this area of research. Thus, a meta-analysis is needed to examine the extent to which hypodescent categorization patterns are replicable and generalizable and under what conditions they emerge. Here, this meta-analysis explores if and when racial categorizations of multiracial and racially ambiguous targets follow hypodescent patterns.

Lauren Davenport (2018)

Multiple-minority biracials also appear to be more firmly liberal and Democrat when it comes to issues of race. This should come as no surprise: their parentage designates them people of color and they contend with the presuppositions that accompany being minorities in America.

People can’t tell what I am, so I think that does influence how people treat me. But I definitely do identify with the black community, so I think what hurts them hurts me. What’s a positive thing for them is a positive thing for me. For Latinos, it’s the same answer. (Black-Latino female)

‘Race is a filter (Robinson, 2015) that contributes to your dating market value (Heino et al., 2010)’

Kauff et al., 2021

“Schlüter et al. (2018), for example, showed that ethnic majority members prefer neighborhoods that are characterized by a low number of ethnic minority members as a place of residence — even when other factors, such as house pricing, housing quality, and educational quality in a neighborhood are controlled for. Based on observational data from a cafeteria of an ethnicallymixed high-school in England, Al Ramiah et al. (2015) found segregationist behavior among ethnic majority and minority members: White and Asian students chose to sit in proximity to ethnically similar others and refrained from mixing with ethnic outgroup members in the school cafeteria (see also Shelton & Richeson, 2005). Using a different and highly innovative approach, Dixon et al. (2019) observed comparable results in a context characterized by a long history of intergroup conflict and high salience of group differences. The authors analyzed around 1,000 hours of GPS movement data from 181 Protestant and Catholic individuals living in Belfast. Although Belfast is a historically segregated city, Protestants and Catholics live in relatively close proximity to each other in some neighborhoods. Dixon et al. observed, however, that despite this “opportunity” for contact participants seldom visited outgroup areas and mostly used street networks and facilities within their ingroups’ residential areas” (p. 41).

The Salad Bowl That Never Mixes

Post-COVID: Returning to In-Person Diversity

Top: UCSD Student Survey; Bottom: Observational Study On Campus At UCSD


UC San Diego’s Black Staff Association (BSA) is hosting their Juneteenth Celebration and Black Excellence Awards on Thursday, June 17 from 2:30 to 4 p.m. The virtual program will celebrate the vibrancy and creativity of Black culture and express appreciation for the Black Excellence exemplified by Black staff across campus. The event is open to staff, faculty, students, friends and supporters. Everyone is welcome.



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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.