International Interracial

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD
5 min readMar 23, 2022

Students raised in the US are more likely to date interracially & monoracials’ interracial preferences seem to persist in subsequent relationships

Table of Contents

· ☆ Nurture Effect ☆
· Multiracial Interracial Preference

Interracial History & Sustained Preference (Developing Data)
Monoracial Minority Subjects, White Subjects
Multiracials Subjects

· ☆ Sidenotes ☆
· Haafu (Torngren & Okamura, 2020)
· Social Utilitarianism Example
· 💘 Angeline Nariswari, 2015
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☆ Nurture Effect ☆

— American students (56.6%) were significantly more likely to be dating interracially than international students (20.5%), χ2(1, N = 1392) = 131.72, p < .001. Indeed, among all ethnoracial groups (except #multiracial & Hispanic students), American students were more likely to date interracially than #international students.

— This nurture effect was significant for East Asian students , χ2(1, N = 551) = 51.39, p < .001, & marginally significant for White students, χ2(1, N = 186) = 3.39, p = .066.

— Moreover, the finding that American students are more likely to date interracially remained significant in an analysis with multiracial Americans removed, χ2(1, N = 1123)= 51.61, p < .001. (Note: Multiracial international students [n = 13] remained in the analysis.)

First-Generation Students

— 1st Generation college students (38.9%) were significantly less likely to report dating interracially, χ2(1, N=868) = 20.82, p < .001.

Multiracial Interracial Preference

— Multiracials are significantly more likely to date interracially than monoracials, χ2(2, N = 2732) = 476.93, p < .001.

Interracial History & Sustained Preference (Developing Data)

Monoracial Minority Subjects

Among minorities (N = 181) whose longest relationship was with someone of the same race (n = 111), most (95.5%) were currently in a monoracial relationship.

Among monoracial minorities whose longest relationship was interracial (n = 70), most (75.7%) were currently in an interracial relationship. About half (50%) were either still with the same person they indicated their longest relationship was with or were interracially dating someone of the same race as that person.
— Interestingly, among those who were dating someone of a different race than their longest interracial lover, 48.6% were in monoracial relationships, and 51.4% (n = 18) were interracially dating someone from a new background. Of those subjects, 8 of them were interracially dating someone White.

White Subjects

Among White subjects (N = 37) whose longest relationship was with someone of the same race (n = 19), all were currently in a monoracial relationship.

Among White subjects whose longest relationship was interracial (n = 18), most (88.9%) were currently in an interracial relationship. Most (66.7%) were either still with the same person they indicated their longest relationship was with or were interracially dating someone of the same race as that person.

Multiracials Subjects

Obviously almost all multiracial minorities dated interracially at all time points. The few who indicated being in monoracial relationships provided info about their lovers parents which seems to conflict with what they reported.

Question: Should Inter-Proportionality Couples be coded as interracial if they differ by at least 50%?

Subject = 75% Chinese & 25% White

Lover = 25% Chinese & 75% White

(Note: We didn’t request info about multiracials’ grandparents in this investigation but did in a recent/ ongoing follow-up).

Consistency of Interracial Mate Preferences

…those with stable ethnic dating preferences (preferring to consistently date either a same-ethnicity or a different-ethnicity partner throughout high school) maintained these preferences over time” (Chan & Kiang, 2021, p. 76).

☆ Sidenotes ☆

#Bisexual (41.4%) & lesbian/gay (50%) students are more likely to report that their parents are interreligious than straight students (24.2%), χ2(2, N = 349) = 12.15, p = .002.

Haafu (Torngren & Okamura, 2020)

[“assume direct quotes”]

— Haafu refers to persons with phenotypical features indicating white Caucasian roots (Okamura 2017).
— E.g., Ariana Miyamoto’s (Blasian) crowning as Miss Japan in 2015, and the surge of strong reactions directed towards her not being Japanese enough (e.g., Fackler 2015)… …vs stores in Japan running a ‘This is Japan’ campaign featuring White multiracial and multiethnic Japanese as a bridge between Japan and the rest of the world.

Around 2% of newborn babies born in Japan were classified as mixed in 2016,

with a father or a mother who is of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, or American* nationality.”

*American = East/SE Asian, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Multiracial, Native American, Persian, White, etc

Today, haafu is not only the dominant word for people perceived as racially mixed, but has become a synonym for ‘exotic’, especially ‘part Caucasian’ or ‘Eurasian’ in the fashion and entertainment worlds. However, it is an admiration of physical appearance derived only from certain racial and ethnic backgrounds [White], and only as an exotic symbol and token, and a target of consumption.

Social Utilitarianism Example

In the days following Pearl Harbor, there was a significant increase in the proportion of Japanese-Americans choosing a White American first name for their children (Martin Saavedra, 2018, 2021).

💘 Angeline Nariswari, 2015

“Valentines Day in Japan is understood as a symbol of liberation for women. The holiday provides Japanese women the opportunity to express their feelings and affection to men which on other occasions would be otherwise unacceptable.”

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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.