🌈Femme Women Give Birth More Than Butch

Birth: Femme/ Butch — Sarah Carver-Steil McNay, 2009

Lesbians With 2+ Kids — Katarina Boye and Marie Evertsson, 2021

the younger woman “is more likely to be the birth mother, the birth mother gave birth to both children in 55% of the couples who had a 2nd child,

The Child’s Last Names

Matrilineal Naming

Patrilineal Naming

Ylva Moberg, 2016

Beth Perry Black & Wendy Smith Field, 2014

Siegalit Zarr et al., 2022

Wiik et al., 2014

children may be understood as a form of “union specific capital” (Becker, Landes, & Michael, 1977) or “joint production” (Brines & Joyner, 1999)

Child Support For Daughters & Sons

Evertsson et al., 2021

social mothers usually take a much larger share of the leave than heterosexual fathers do,

female same-sex couples tended to share the leave more equally than different-sex couples did.

Bio & Social Mother — Patrick Mthombeni & Mark E. Casey, 2020

Adoption Laws — Michael Stambolis-Ruhstorfer & Virginie Descoutures, 2021


STEM & HEED — Puzio & Valshtein, 2022

2nd Shift & Fertility Rates — Hwang & Kim, 2021

Never-Married & Divorced Lovers

Kids & Divorce

Housework in Childhood: Briole et al., 2020

Hebdomadal Weekday and Weekend — Kamila Kolpashnikova & Yan, 2019

Stepmothers — Melissa Day, 2019

Stepfamilies — Ayla Visser, 2015



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