COV Eye D

Veena Danthuluri & Maria Grant (2020)

“There is a benefit to using eye protection for healthcare workers and the general public and studies suggest that the lack of eye protection when other precautions are taken can result in contraction of the viral disease.”

“Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves as the receptor for the virus and is found in the eye, suggesting that the virus may be transmittable via tears (Willcox et al., 2020). The molecular mechanism of ACE2-driven infection and the time course of eye involvement, among children and adults, were the focus of this review with the intent that informed clinicians will not miss the diagnoses of COVID-19. While the ocular manifestations of COVID-19 have been considered minimal, there exist considerable data to support the importance of ocular findings (Wu et al., 2020).”

COVID19 has been detected “in ocular swabs indicating the presence of virus in the eye as long as 27 days after initial symptoms, even with concomitant absence of virus in nasal swabs (Colavita et al., 2020).”

Although viral infection of ocular cells has not yet been reported in patients, a recent report found SARS-CoV-2 can infect conjunctiva in an ex-vivo culture system (Hui et al., 2020). Our results may offer additional insights regarding the role of the ocular surface in COVID-19 transmission, suggesting that the ocular surface may serve as a significant reservoir for virus.”

Marta Vianya-Estopa et al., 2020

Thankfully, “56% of participants reported using their lenses less during the COVID pandemic.”

Bakkar & Alzghoul, 2021 (90.8% women)

Thankfully, “38.8 % of the study population reported stopping CL wear during the pandemic. The main stated reason for lens discontinuation was decreased social activities during the pandemic.”

Feng et al., 2021

“The eye has been identified as a potential route of entry and site of disease manifestation. Thus, ocular protection has been recommended and implemented in various health care settings. …current evidence suggests the potential for ocular transmission via 2 mechanisms: viral binding to the ocular surface via the ACE2 receptor and viral dissemination through the tear film and into the upper respiratory tract.”

“Given the need for contact lens wearers to touch their face and eyes on application and removal of their contact lenses, it is understandable that questions have been raised about the safety of continuing with contact lens use during the pandemic (Jones et al., 2020)”

“Consistent with guidance for other types of illness, particularly those of the respiratory tract, no contact lens wearer with active COVID-19 should remain wearing their contact lenses (Sankaridurg et al., 2004; Sweeney et al., 2004; Willcox et al., 2004). This is the time to cease contact lens wear and revert to spectacles.”
— Jones et al., 2020

Jones, L., Walsh, K., Willcox, M., Morgan, P., & Nichols, J. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: Important considerations for contact lens practitioners. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 43(3), 196–203.

Eyes & #COVIDー19

1. Many #UCSD students switched from CLens to glasses in 2020.

Reminder…

“if someone becomes infected while wearing a mask, they are more likely to have a milder or asymptomatic infection than someone who becomes infected while not wearing a mask” (Gandhi & Marr, 2020)

Sidenotes

As toddlers, males make less eye contact — that is, as compared to females (Freedman, 2003).

The Recursive Loop

- “The coming year could be a story of two worlds undermining each other. Certain countries will approach herd immunity by vaccinating almost every citizen. Other countries could see mass casualties and catastrophic waves of reinfection — potentially with variants that evolved in response to the immunity conferred by the very vaccines to which these populations do not have access. In the process, these hot spots themselves will facilitate rapid evolution, giving rise to even more variants that could make the vaccinated populations susceptible to disease once again.

The Uncanny Gaze

The amygdala responds more strongly to direct gaze than to averted gaze (Kawashima et al., 1999), particularly when processing sex/gender (Macrae et al., 2002), and even if the mutual eye gaze is with a soulless robot as opposed to a fellow soulborne human (Kiilavuori et al., 2021). We respond more strongly to a robot looking directly at us compared to a robot looking at someone else (Imai et al., 2002), and this is associated with perceptions of robots’ intentions & social engagement (Kompatsiari et al., 2019, 2021).

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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.