BiNegativity

Annukka Lahti, 2021 — A

— “Even after #bisexual women had lived in LGBTIQA+ culture for a long time,” and had both male & female lovers, their parents/family still expressed more positive affect when they were in “relationships with cismen.”

Nicole Braida, 2021

Coming out is difficult for people who live with their parents.

Renate Baumgartner, 2021

[A closeted subject] shows what Bostwick (2012, p. 8) calls “stigma consciousness”. In the end, she chose the strategy of concealment. It is clear that she anticipated having to manage binegative attitudes. Her ambivalence about “coming out” is well attested to in the literature describing the struggles of bisexuals coming out in a society full of anti-bisexual discourses and practices (Balsam & Mohr, 2007; Flanders et al., 2016; Fra, 2014; Li et al., 2013).

Bi & Coming Out to Kids — Rowan Haus, 2020

On average, bisexuals are about 13-year old when they first realize they may be bisexual, and about 20-year old when they first disclose their identity to someone (Pew Research Center, 2015).

Annukka Lahti, 2021 — B (continued)

Often, over the course of their lives, interviewees’ parents met their partners of different genders and came to accept and like them. However, it was striking in the data that even after the participants had lived in LGBTIQA+ culture for a long time, and had had partners of different genders, in their family relationship assemblages, powerful positive affects such as happiness were repeatedly assembled to their relationships with cis men.

Table of Contents

· Bartlett, 2020
· Bi — Pollitt et al., 2020
· BiNegativity — Julia Toews, 2020
· Bisexual Men — Stokes et al., 1996
· BiPhobia is Unique
· Bisexual Men Experience the Worst Binegativity
· Biphobia is Highest Among Straight Women
· Bisexuals & Social Support — Emily Eckstein, 2016
· Gender Roles
— Sophie Whyman, 2019
Angela Garelick et al., 2017
· SocioLegal Climate — Magdalena Siegel et al., 2021
Impact of Legal Vulnerability on Parental Health
· Sidenotes
Daphna Motro et al., 2021
· White Women Made Up About 40% of All Slave Owners
Becky Little, 2019 (assume everything is a direct quote)
· The Cultural Meaning of First Impressions
· Discrimination
Statistical Discrimination
Cumulative Discrimination
Aversive Prejudice

Bartlett, 2020

“Research shows this double stigma experience for bisexual people from the sexual minoritized community and the heterosexual community (Beach et al., 2018; Dodge et al., 2016). Bisexuals often reported the hurt of not being accepted within non-heterosexual communities as worse than that of heterosexual communities due to it supposedly being an inclusive space.”

Bi — Pollitt et al., 2020

“Bisexuals are more likely to be in opposite-sex relationships and thus not categorized as sexual minority parents (Herek et al., 2010), there have been fewer studies on the health of bisexual parents and their children [despite the fact that] bisexuals are more likely to be parents than lesbian/gay people (Gates, 2014; Herek et al., 2010).

BiNegativity — Julia Toews, 2020

Bisexual individuals face prejudice from both heterosexual and homosexual demographics (Bostwick & Hequembourg, 2014; Brewster & Moradi, 2010; Hequembourg & Brallier, 2009). Ochs (1996) coined the term “double discrimination,” to refer to the outcome of this unique form of prejudice, and it is supposed that these dual forces contribute to the bisexual population being at higher risk of negative health outcomes than heterosexual or homosexual populations (Bostwick et al., 2010; Feinstein & Dyar, 2017; Friedman et al., 2014). Ochs (1996) suggests that the primary manifestation of binegativity is the “denial of the very existence of bisexual people” (p. 224). This is rooted in the belief that bisexuality is not an authentic sexuality.

Bisexual Men — Stokes et al., 1996

“Men who are bisexually active face special barriers to disclosing their homosexual behavior to female partners. Homosexual behavior is stigmatizing for many men and disclosing homosexual activity is probably very difficult for many men who live in a basically heterosexual world. Further, the HIV/AIDS epidemic may make homosexual behavior even more stigmatized, leading to lower likelihood of disclosure.

BiPhobia is Unique

Bisexuals experience prejudice from both monosexual groups (Brewster & Moradi, 2010; Eliason, 1997; Helms & Waters, 2016; Herek, 2002; Mitchell et al., 2015; Mohr & Rochlen, 1999; Mulick & Wright, 2002; Spalding & Peplau, 1997; Yost & Thomas, 2012). Interestingly, Mitchell et al. (2015) found that bisexuals experience more prejudice than individuals identified as pansexual, queer, and fluid from LG individuals.

Bisexual Men Experience the Worst Binegativity

Bisexual men experience the most binegativity (de Bruin & Arndt, 2010; Helms & Waters, 2016; Mackenzie Ess et al., 2021; Sarno et al., 2020; Yost & Thomas, 2012). For instance, heterosexual women may fear that a bisexual boyfriend carries a sexually transmitted infection (Spalding & Peplau, 1997).

Biphobia is Highest Among Straight Women

“Negative evaluations of bisexuality may be particularly severe for bisexual men (Eliason, 2000; Gleason et al., 2018; Yost & Thomas, 2012). The effect of binegativity toward men was largest amongst the heterosexual female participants, but this effect was also demonstrated in gay male participants and bisexual female participants.

Bisexuals & Social Support — Emily Eckstein, 2016

Although many factors have contributed to the difference in physical and mental health among bisexuals, the lack of visibility and the social stigmatization facing this population have been the most influential (Fox, 2006; Jorm, Korten, Rodgers, Jacomb, & Christensen, 2002; Yoshino, 2000).

Gender Roles

— Sophie Whyman, 2019

Parents and caregivers are evidenced to be key in both boys’ and girls’ attitudes toward gender roles.

Angela Garelick et al., 2017

“Under the conventional system of gender heteronormativity, male and female are conceptualized as discrete and unambiguous categories, and gender identity is presumed to match these categories (Connell, 2002). Someone who is biologically male is expected to identify as a man and to display masculine characteristics, whereas someone who is biologically female is expected to identify as a woman and to display feminine characteristics.

SocioLegal Climate — Magdalena Siegel et al., 2021

The absence of legal relationship recognition or protection from discrimination, and a country’s overall (socio-)legal climate have been repeatedly linked to adverse physical and mental health outcomes in sexual minority youth and adults. These include reduced life satisfaction (Pachankis and Bränström, 2018), impaired physical health (Kail et al., 2015), increased general mental distress (Rostosky et al., 2009; Tatum, 2017; Hatzenbuehler et al., 2018; Raifman et al., 2018), increased psychiatric morbidities (Hatzenbuehler et al., 2009, 2010; Everett et al., 2016), and suicide attempts (Raifman et al., 2017).

Impact of Legal Vulnerability on Parental Health

Legal vulnerability is associated with an increased selectivity in sexual orientation concealment, with same-sex parent families remaining open to their families of origin, but less so to people in the wider social network (Vyncke and Julien, 2007; Vuckovic Juroš, 2019; Zhabenko, 2019). Conversely, decreased legal vulnerability (e.g., through a recognized parental relationship) may lead to increased outness and visibility as a member of a same-sex parent family (e.g., through being visible as a married couple). Legal vulnerability also adds a structural facet to rejection sensitivity (Feinstein, 2020). Based on the evidence provided in our review, we propose that legal vulnerability is associated with rejection sensitivity toward the legal system (i.e., legal rejection sensitivity): Within our evidence base, this legal rejection sensitivity took the form of (anxiously) expecting that legal documents will not hold up in court (e.g., McClellan, 2001; Bergen et al., 2006; Goldberg et al., 2013), expectations of prejudicial treatment by actors within the legal system or the state (e.g., Goldberg et al., 2014; Gash and Raiskin, 2018; Wheeler et al., 2018; Zhabenko, 2019), distrust in the state or foreign jurisdictions recognizing the family structure (e.g., when traveling; Bergen et al., 2006; Gartrell et al., 2019), or questioning the motivation behind (e.g., Rawsthorne, 2013) or the permanency of progressive legal change (i.e., expecting a backlash; Goldberg et al., 2013; Denman, 2016).

Sidenotes

Daphna Motro et al., 2021

The angry Black man stereotype is associated with physical aggression (Shapiro et al., 2009) whereas ‘angry Black woman’ is associated with sassiness/ loud/ being tough (Carpenter, 2012; Donovan, 2011), as well as yelling & verbal hostility (Walley-Jean, 2009).

— Television shows often include a token black woman who is expected to entertain the audience with her irrational anger and hostility (Tyree, 2011).

White Women Made Up About 40% of All Slave Owners

Becky Little, 2019 (assume everything is a direct quote)

Filters & photoshopped selfies make may increase one’s prospects on the mating market in 2021, but in pre-Freedom America, “owning a large number of enslaved people made a woman a better marriage prospect.”

Discrimination

Statistical Discrimination

Lundberg, 1991: People regularly make judgments about people based on the things they do know and decide whether to invest in acquiring further information (Lundberg, 1991).

Cumulative Discrimination

National Research Council. 2004. Measuring Racial Discrimination. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10887.

Aversive Prejudice

National Research Council. 2004. Measuring Racial Discrimination. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10887.

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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.