Athletes & Lover Attractiveness

Athletes & Lover’s Attractiveness

#Heterosexual females’ (but not males’) ratings of their lover’s attractiveness differed based on the sports background of themselves & their lovers, F(3, 137) = 8.49, p < .001.

Bisexuals Break From #Heteronormativity

Boyfriend attractiveness ratings were higher for bisexual female athletes whose boyfriend was not an athlete (M = 8.22) than for straight female athletes whose boyfriend was not an athlete (M = 6.22), F(1, 25) = 5.14, p = .032.

Attractiveness Preferences Across Sexual Orientation

— monosexuals have higher attractiveness preferences than bisexuals, especially when dating women


Assume Direct Quotes — Will Pare Down When Time Permits

TransRights in Sports

Wiik et al., 2020

Muscle strength after 12 months of testosterone suppression was comparable to baseline strength. As a result, transgender women remained about 50% stronger than both the group of transgender men at baseline and a reference group of females.

8 Years of HRT — Lapauw et al., 2008

A cross-sectional study of 23 transgender women and 46 healthy age and height-matched control males showed that transgender women had 17% less lean mass and 25% lower peak quadriceps muscle strength than the control males (Lapauw et al., 2008). This cross-sectional comparison suggests that prolonged testosterone suppression, well beyond the time period mandated by sports federations substantially reduces muscle mass and strength in transgender women. However, the typical gap in lean mass and strength between males and females at baseline exceeds the reductions reported in this study.

Endurance & Cardio-Based Sports

The balance between inclusion and fairness is likely closer to equilibrium in weight-bearing endurance-based sports compared with strength-based sports where the male advantage is still substantial.

Cathy Devine, 2021 — Puberty-related male advantage mitigation via testosterone suppression

Despite extremely low testosterone levels in transwomen, significant male advantage is retained. Hilton and Lundberg (2021: 199) conclude ‘the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 12 months of treatment’ and Harper et al. (2021) conclude that ‘values for strength, LBM (lean body mass) and muscle area in transwomen remain above those of cisgender (sic) women, even after 36 months of hormone therapy.’ In contrast, male advantage ranges from 8% to 12% in running events (Handelsman et al., 2018) to 50% in some strength and power sports (Hilton and Lundberg, 2021) and females have ‘31% lower LBM, 36% lower hand-grip strength and 35% lower knee extension strength’ than males (Harper et al., 2021). The scientific evidence is unequivocal, testosterone suppression to well below both 5 and 10 nmol/l for 1 year, only minimally affects male advantage. The two specific concerns of these Olympians regarding lack of evidence to support the IOC guidelines as fair or even ‘tolerably unfair’ are therefore upheld by the scientific literature.

“It’s important to remember that transwomen are women. This discussion on how transwomen retain a significant portion of their male advantage seems to overlook that fact.” — Jarryd Willis

Pam Sailors, 2020

Physiological differences accompanying puberty result in a sporting performance advantage for males over females, an advantage generally calculated at 10–12% (TUCKER 2019). This does not mean that all males will possess this advantage over all females, but it does make it likely enough in the majority of cases that it constitutes a reason for a protected women’s category.

Jarryd: which could be consequential for the many non-heterosexual WNBA players who, on average, have higher testosterone than straight women.

Hilton & Lundberg, 2021 — Testosterone Suppression and Performance Advantage

Males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. the performance gap between males and females becomes significant at puberty and often amounts to 10–50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and explosive strength, particularly in the upper body.

Sports Performance Differences Between Males and Females

The smallest performance gaps were seen in rowing, swimming and running (11–13%), with low variation across individual events within each of those categories. The performance gap increases to an average of 16% in track cycling, with higher variation across events (from 9% in the 4000 m team pursuit to 24% in the flying 500 m time trial). The average performance gap is 18% in jumping events (long jump, high jump and triple jump). Performance differences larger than 20% are generally present when considering sports and activities that involve extensive upper body contributions. The gap between fastest recorded tennis serve is 20%, while the gaps between fastest recorded baseball pitches and field hockey drag flicks exceed 50%.

Perspectives on Elite Athlete Performance Differences

In running events, for example, where the male–female gap is approximately 11%… as such, approximately 10,000 males have personal best times that are faster than the current Olympic 100 m female champion (World Athletics, personal communication, July 2019). This has also been described elsewhere (Coleman, 2017; Mokgadi Caster Semenya v. International Association of Athletics Federation, 2020), and illustrates the true effect of an 11% typical difference on population comparisons between males and females.

This is further apparent upon examination of selected junior male records, which surpass adult elite female performances by the age of 14–15 years,

demonstrating superior male athletic performance over elite females within a few years of the onset of puberty.

Scharff et al., 2019

transgender women retained a 17% grip strength advantage over transgender men measured at baseline. The authors noted that handgrip strength in transgender women was in approximately the 25th percentile for males but was over the 90th percentile for females, both before and after hormone treatment. This emphasizes that the strength advantage for males over females is inherently large.

Gabriel Higerd, 2020

Rawling and Navratilova have been labeled Trans-Exclusionary Radical Feminists (TERFs), a term embraced by some, but interpreted as derogatory or a slur by others such as Rowling (Miller & Yasharoff, 2020).

Put another way, a female that was better than 99% of girls would only be better than 57%-68% of boys.

Georgina Stebbings et al., 2021

In trans women soldiers, 2.4 km run performance after 2.5 years of hormone therapy was ~8% slower than pre-therapy but remained ~11% faster than cis women (Roberts et al., 2020).

Luu, 2021

During puberty, testosterone exposure has ergogenic effects resulting in differences aside from just muscle development. This includes differences in skeletal structure such as height, limb length, and pelvic architecture (Krabbe et al., 1979; Kanazawa et al., 2004). Contrarily, males and females exposed to testosterone after puberty do not experience these effects. Robert et al. (2020) concluded this may be a plausible explanation regarding the significantly faster 1.5-mile times in trans women over cis women even after estrogen therapy.

Luu: Because exposure to estrogen or testosterone after puberty cannot change many anatomical structures, cis women would automatically be at a disadvantage compared to trans women regardless of gender-affirming hormones.

Jarryd: TransWomen are women so differences in anatomic structures is irrelevant to athletic performance.

Medical Practitioner: After undergoing a gender transformation surgery, those who became males are usually shorter than an average male, and people who became females are taller than most women. This makes transgender people feel uncomfortable and stand out while they want quite the opposite. A possible solution for transgender males is limb lengthening surgery, while transgender women tend to consider limb shortening surgery.

Transmen & Transwomen Athletes: The Effect of HRT on Muscles — Anna Wiik et al., 2020

"The question of when it is fair to permit transgender persons to compete in sport in line with their experienced gender identity is a delicate issue given the desire to

In contrast to the transmen, the transwomen experienced reductions in muscle mass over the intervention.

However, it is worth noting that the reduction in muscle mass in TW was smaller than the corresponding increase in TM, both in terms of relative and absolute changes. At the 12-month follow-up, the TW still had larger muscle volumes and quadriceps area than the TM.

Other Research

A metaanalysis reported that TM on average gain 3.9 kg of lean body mass whereas TW lose 2.4 kg during the course of 12 months of cross-sex hormone therapy (Klaver et al., 2017). Evidence of lower-limb muscle size changes has been provided by a few studies of the first 12 months of treatment in transgender individuals undergoing hormone therapy. A substantial increase in muscle mass (10–19%) with testosterone administration was reported in TM (Elbers et al., 1999; Van Caenegem et al., 2015; Gooren & Bunck, 2004), while TW undergoing testosterone suppression and estrogen treatment experienced a 9% reduction in total thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (Elbers et al., 1999; Gooren & Bunck, 2004).

Senefeld et al., 2021

Elite performing men continue to record faster record times in running events compared to women. These sex-based differences in running speed and endurance in humans are expected based on sexual dimorphisms that contribute to differences in the determinants of aerobic performance. Comparatively, the sexual dimorphisms contributing to sex-based differences in elite aerobic performance are not ubiquitous across other species that compete in running events.


High Heels — A Supernormal Stimulus

Why I Always Have GamerGirl in High Heels

Tom Jacobs — Pacific Standard (1/2/2013, original publication date):

“A woman walking in high heels is a “supernormal stimulus” — that is, an enhanced version of a stimulus found in nature.

While wearing high-heeled shoes, the women “walked in a fashion more characteristic of female gait.” Specifically, “walkers in high heels took smaller, more frequent steps,” and this reduction in the length of their stride was accompanied by “increased rotation and tilt of the hips.”

Heels — Persuad & Bruggen — Psychology Today (8 / 28/ 2015):

“The biomechanical results are also consistent with the theory that wearing high heels makes women look more attractive by making them more feminine, as the effect of heels was to exaggerate some sex-specific elements of female gait including:
- greater pelvic rotation
- increased vertical motion at the hip
- shorter strides
- higher number of steps per minute.

Davis & Arnocky, 2020

In the current review, appearance enhancement is described as a self-promotion strategy used to enhance reproductive success by rendering oneself more attractive than rivals to mates, thereby increasing one’s mate value. The varied ways in which humans enhance their appearance are described, as well as the divergent tactics used by women and men to augment their appearance, which correspond to the preferences of opposite-sex mates in a heterosexual context.

Ji Lai et al., 2021

Female reproductive value is inferred by examining external physical cues (Garza et al., 2016). Women of higher reproductive value show a stronger attractiveness in terms of facial features and having sexual figures (Andrews et al., 2017). These facial features usually include facial adiposity, plump lips, a small chin, thin jaws, and high cheekbones, all of which make the face look attractive (Karremans et al., 2010). Sexual figures are often taken to mean a slender waist, a low waist-to-hip ratio, firm breasts, and a relatively low body mass index (BMI); these features are considered to be reliable indicators of body attractiveness in women (Kościński, 2013; Sugiyama, 2015).

UC Presidential Policy on Gender Recognition and Lived Name

The UC Presidential Policy on Gender Recognition and Lived Name has been released and has implications for our daily practices, as well as many of our student, employee, alumni, affiliate, and patient data systems and IT structures. Full implementation of this policy will ensure a more inclusive, respectful environment for all people at UC San Diego.

Paul Watson, May 31st 2022

“Top doctors told the New York Times that transgender swimmer Lia Thomas still has an unfair advantage over biological females despite the athlete having undergone testosterone suppressing therapy.



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Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

Dr. Jarryd Willis PhD

I'm passionate about making a tangible difference in the lives of others, & that's something I have the opportunity to do a professor & researcher.