Athletes & Lover Attractiveness
Females who aren’t athletes are able to get hotter boyfriends than females who are athletes…
The U.S. national women's soccer team wins $24 million in equal pay settlement
The U.S. Women's National Soccer team has reached a proposed settlement in its class action equal pay lawsuit against…
Note: Preliminary Data
Athletes & Lover’s Attractiveness
#Heterosexual females’ (but not males’) ratings of their lover’s attractiveness differed based on the sports background of themselves & their lovers, F(3, 137) = 8.49, p < .001.
Boyfriend attractiveness ratings were higher for female non-athletes whose boyfriend competed in officiated sports (M = 8.33) than for female athletes whose boyfriend was not an athlete (M = 5.96), F(1, 33) = 8.09, p = .008.
🌈Lover attractiveness ratings were higher for male athletes with non-athlete girlfriends (M=8.0) than for female athletes with non-athlete boyfriends (M = 5.96), F(1, 47) = 8.91, p=.004.
Bisexuals Break From #Heteronormativity
Boyfriend attractiveness ratings were higher for bisexual female athletes whose boyfriend was not an athlete (M = 8.22) than for straight female athletes whose boyfriend was not an athlete (M = 6.22), F(1, 25) = 5.14, p = .032.
Attractiveness Preferences Across Sexual Orientation
— monosexuals have higher attractiveness preferences than bisexuals, especially when dating women
— bisexual women have lower expectations for a boyfriend’s attractiveness than anyone else who may date men
— bisexual men have higher expectations for a boyfriend’s attractiveness than for a girlfriend’s
— lesbians have marginally higher expectations of their girlfriends than bisexual women have of their boyfriends
Assume Direct Quotes — Will Pare Down When Time Permits
TransRights in Sports
Wiik et al., 2020
Muscle strength after 12 months of testosterone suppression was comparable to baseline strength. As a result, transgender women remained about 50% stronger than both the group of transgender men at baseline and a reference group of females.
8 Years of HRT — Lapauw et al., 2008
A cross-sectional study of 23 transgender women and 46 healthy age and height-matched control males showed that transgender women had 17% less lean mass and 25% lower peak quadriceps muscle strength than the control males (Lapauw et al., 2008). This cross-sectional comparison suggests that prolonged testosterone suppression, well beyond the time period mandated by sports federations substantially reduces muscle mass and strength in transgender women. However, the typical gap in lean mass and strength between males and females at baseline exceeds the reductions reported in this study.
Moreover, given that cohorts of transgender women often have slightly lower baseline measurements of muscle and strength than control males (Van Caenegem et al., 2015), and baseline measurements were unavailable for the transgender women of this cohort, the above calculations using control males reference values may be an overestimate of actual loss of muscle mass and strength.
Endurance & Cardio-Based Sports
The balance between inclusion and fairness is likely closer to equilibrium in weight-bearing endurance-based sports compared with strength-based sports where the male advantage is still substantial.
Cathy Devine, 2021 — Puberty-related male advantage mitigation via testosterone suppression
Despite extremely low testosterone levels in transwomen, significant male advantage is retained. Hilton and Lundberg (2021: 199) conclude ‘the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 12 months of treatment’ and Harper et al. (2021) conclude that ‘values for strength, LBM (lean body mass) and muscle area in transwomen remain above those of cisgender (sic) women, even after 36 months of hormone therapy.’ In contrast, male advantage ranges from 8% to 12% in running events (Handelsman et al., 2018) to 50% in some strength and power sports (Hilton and Lundberg, 2021) and females have ‘31% lower LBM, 36% lower hand-grip strength and 35% lower knee extension strength’ than males (Harper et al., 2021). The scientific evidence is unequivocal, testosterone suppression to well below both 5 and 10 nmol/l for 1 year, only minimally affects male advantage. The two specific concerns of these Olympians regarding lack of evidence to support the IOC guidelines as fair or even ‘tolerably unfair’ are therefore upheld by the scientific literature.
“It’s important to remember that transwomen are women. This discussion on how transwomen retain a significant portion of their male advantage seems to overlook that fact.” — Jarryd Willis
Physiological differences accompanying puberty result in a sporting performance advantage for males over females, an advantage generally calculated at 10–12% (TUCKER 2019). This does not mean that all males will possess this advantage over all females, but it does make it likely enough in the majority of cases that it constitutes a reason for a protected women’s category.
The endogenous testosterone level in females is 0.12–1.79 nmol/L, strikingly lower than the 7.7–29.4 nmol/L level in males (Sailors and Weaving 2020). With this reasoning, an IAAF group tasked with considering regulations for trans athlete participation noted: It is widely recognised that testosterone (T) distributes bimodally among male and female populations. T is also the primary known driver of the performance gap between males and females. Consequently, while acknowledging that testosterone is not the only physical basis for the performance gap, serum T has been found to be an acceptable proxy to distinguish males from females for sports purposes (IAAF Report 2019). Thus, current IAAF policy requires that both trans and intersex athletes maintain serum testosterone levels below 5 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to, and throughout, competition in international events.
It is important to recognize that these regulations were not arbitrarily manufactured, but are instead supported by a growing body of scientific studies. For example, a 2018 paper in Clinical Endocrinology asserted that, . . . recent studies of androgen levels in elite athletes have suggested that female athletes with high testosterone levels, free or total, may have a significant competitive advantage over those with low testosterone levels. Further controlled studies in both males and females have shown significant increases in muscle mass and strength, and a clear dose-response effect with administration of increasing amounts of exogenous testosterone (Clark et al. 2018, 20). Similarly, Hirschberg and colleagues found ‘a causal effect of testosterone in the increase in aerobic running time as well as lean mass in young physically active women’ (Hirschberg et al. 2019). Further, Brown (2020) provides an extensive review of studies regarding sex-based physiological differences, supporting not only the positive athletic performance effects of testosterone but also the persistence of those effects even after androgen deprivation (see Handelsman, Hirschberg, and Bermon et al. 2018; Knechtle, Nikolaidis, and Di Gangi et al. 2018; Lepers et al. 2013; Thibault and Guillaume et al. 2010) (Gooren and Bunck 2004; Handelsman 2017; Knox, Anderson, and Heather 2019; Tønnessen et al. 2015).
The fallacy of generalizing from an atypical sample: Just because something is true within a special group does not mean that is true across groups.
Karkazis et al. (2012) argues that anyone legally recognized as female should be allowed to compete in the women’s category, ‘regardless of their hormonal levels, providing their bodies naturally produce the hormones’
Jarryd: which could be consequential for the many non-heterosexual WNBA players who, on average, have higher testosterone than straight women.
Hilton & Lundberg, 2021 — Testosterone Suppression and Performance Advantage
Males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. the performance gap between males and females becomes significant at puberty and often amounts to 10–50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and explosive strength, particularly in the upper body.
Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 12 months of treatment. Thus, the muscular advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed.
Sports Performance Differences Between Males and Females
The smallest performance gaps were seen in rowing, swimming and running (11–13%), with low variation across individual events within each of those categories. The performance gap increases to an average of 16% in track cycling, with higher variation across events (from 9% in the 4000 m team pursuit to 24% in the flying 500 m time trial). The average performance gap is 18% in jumping events (long jump, high jump and triple jump). Performance differences larger than 20% are generally present when considering sports and activities that involve extensive upper body contributions. The gap between fastest recorded tennis serve is 20%, while the gaps between fastest recorded baseball pitches and field hockey drag flicks exceed 50%.
Sports performance relies to some degree on the magnitude, speed and repeatability of force application, and, with respect to the speed of force production (power), vertical jump performance is on average 33% greater in elite men than women, with differences ranging from 27.8% for endurance sports to in excess of 40% for precision and combat sports (Haugen et al., 2020). Because implement mass differs, direct comparisons are not possible in throwing events in track and field athletics. However, the performance gap is known to be substantial, and throwing represents the widest sex difference in motor performance from an early age (Thomas & French, 1985). In Olympic javelin throwers, this is manifested in differences in the peak linear velocities of the shoulder, wrist, elbow and hand, all of which are 13–21% higher for male athletes compared with females (Antti et al., 1994).
The increasing performance gap between males and females as upper body strength becomes more critical for performance is likely explained to a large extent by the observation that males have disproportionately greater strength in their upper compared to lower body, while females show the inverse (Lassek & Gaulin, 2009; Stoll et al., 2000). This different distribution of strength compounds the general advantage of increased muscle mass in upper body dominant disciplines. Males also have longer arms than females, which allows greater torque production from the arm lever when, for example, throwing a ball, punching or pushing.
Already at 17 years of age, the average male throws a ball further than 99% of 17-year-old females…
Perspectives on Elite Athlete Performance Differences
In running events, for example, where the male–female gap is approximately 11%… as such, approximately 10,000 males have personal best times that are faster than the current Olympic 100 m female champion (World Athletics, personal communication, July 2019). This has also been described elsewhere (Coleman, 2017; Mokgadi Caster Semenya v. International Association of Athletics Federation, 2020), and illustrates the true effect of an 11% typical difference on population comparisons between males and females.
This is further apparent upon examination of selected junior male records, which surpass adult elite female performances by the age of 14–15 years,
demonstrating superior male athletic performance over elite females within a few years of the onset of puberty.
These data overwhelmingly confirm that testosterone driven puberty, as the driving force of development of male secondary sex characteristics, underpins sporting advantages that are so large no female could reasonably hope to succeed without sex segregation in most sporting competitions. To ensure, in light of these analyses, that female athletes can be included in sporting competitions in a fair and safe manner, most sports have a female category the purpose of which is the protection of both fairness and, in some sports, safety/welfare of athletes who do not benefit from the physiological changes induced by male levels of testosterone from puberty onwards.
Scharff et al., 2019
transgender women retained a 17% grip strength advantage over transgender men measured at baseline. The authors noted that handgrip strength in transgender women was in approximately the 25th percentile for males but was over the 90th percentile for females, both before and after hormone treatment. This emphasizes that the strength advantage for males over females is inherently large.
Rawling and Navratilova have been labeled Trans-Exclusionary Radical Feminists (TERFs), a term embraced by some, but interpreted as derogatory or a slur by others such as Rowling (Miller & Yasharoff, 2020).
Biological differences in 46, XY and 46, XX persons affect the structure and function of the human body (Carlson, 2018). This function and structure translate to differences in sports performance (Handelsman, 2017). Further research is needed regarding biological performance considerations for sports competition.
High Jump: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 18.18%
Long Jump: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 24.14%
100-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 14.38%
200-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 16.17%
400-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 17.62%
800-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 17.96%
1600-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 17.81%
3200-Meter: The mean advantage in favor of male performances was 16.83%
The gap between the sexes is large and persistent across all events (14.4%-24.1%). The average male performance fits at the very top of the female field (top 2.1%-5.8%), and the average female performance fits at the very bottom of the male field (bottom 3.0%-7.1%). A massive number of males (32%-43%) are able to perform within the top 1% of female performances.
Put another way, a female that was better than 99% of girls would only be better than 57%-68% of boys.
In trans women soldiers, 2.4 km run performance after 2.5 years of hormone therapy was ~8% slower than pre-therapy but remained ~11% faster than cis women (Roberts et al., 2020).
During puberty, testosterone exposure has ergogenic effects resulting in differences aside from just muscle development. This includes differences in skeletal structure such as height, limb length, and pelvic architecture (Krabbe et al., 1979; Kanazawa et al., 2004). Contrarily, males and females exposed to testosterone after puberty do not experience these effects. Robert et al. (2020) concluded this may be a plausible explanation regarding the significantly faster 1.5-mile times in trans women over cis women even after estrogen therapy.
Luu: Because exposure to estrogen or testosterone after puberty cannot change many anatomical structures, cis women would automatically be at a disadvantage compared to trans women regardless of gender-affirming hormones.
Jarryd: TransWomen are women so differences in anatomic structures is irrelevant to athletic performance.
Medical Practitioner: After undergoing a gender transformation surgery, those who became males are usually shorter than an average male, and people who became females are taller than most women. This makes transgender people feel uncomfortable and stand out while they want quite the opposite. A possible solution for transgender males is limb lengthening surgery, while transgender women tend to consider limb shortening surgery.
Transmen & Transwomen Athletes: The Effect of HRT on Muscles — Anna Wiik et al., 2020
"The question of when it is fair to permit transgender persons to compete in sport in line with their experienced gender identity is a delicate issue given the desire to
1. Ensure fair, safe, and meaningful competition
2. Protecting transgender individuals’ rights and autonomy (Singh et al., 2010; Semerjian & Cohen, 2016; Genel, 2017; Bianchi, 2017).
The International Olympic Committee stated in 2015 that transgender men (TM) are allowed to compete in the male category without restrictions, while transgender women (TW) must have testosterone levels below 5 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to competition (IAAF, 2019).
Findings: This study found that, despite the robust changes in lower-limb muscle mass and strength in TM, the TW were still stronger following 12 months of gender-affirming hormone treatment, both in absolute and height-adjusted values.
There have been very few investigations on whether any physical advantages of many years of male testosterone levels, as untreated adult TW have experienced, remain after gender-affirming interventions. Few data have been provided to add clarity on the potential remaining physical advantage for TW after medical interventions.
As such, these findings add new knowledge that could be relevant for sport governing bodies when evaluating the eligibility of transgender individuals to compete in athletic events in line with their experienced gender identity.
The increase in muscle volume and quadriceps CSA in the TM was expected given the well-known effect of testosterone administration on muscle mass (Handelsman et al., 2018; Bhasin et al., 1996).
In contrast to the transmen, the transwomen experienced reductions in muscle mass over the intervention.
However, it is worth noting that the reduction in muscle mass in TW was smaller than the corresponding increase in TM, both in terms of relative and absolute changes. At the 12-month follow-up, the TW still had larger muscle volumes and quadriceps area than the TM.
The TM increased strength over the assessment period, both in knee extension and knee flexion. In contrast, the TW maintained knee extension strength and knee flexor isometric strength, but there were some improvements in the dynamic knee flexor measurements. The most robust and reproducible strength measure in this study, namely the isometric knee extension (Gleeson & Mercer, 1996), showed that the TM increased strength by around 12%, whereas the TW maintained their strength levels.
We acknowledge that this study was conducted with untrained individuals and not transgender athletes. Thus, while this gave us the important opportunity to study the effect of the cross-hormone treatment alone, and as such the study adds important data to the field, it is still uncertain how the findings would translate to transgender athletes undergoing advanced training regimens during the gender-affirming intervention.
It is also important to recognize that we only assessed proxies for athletic performance, such as muscle mass and strength. Future studies are needed to examine a more comprehensive battery of performance outcomes in transgender athletes. Given the marked changes in hemoglobin concentration in the current study, it is possible that gender-affirming treatment also has effects on endurance performance and aerobic capacity.”
A metaanalysis reported that TM on average gain 3.9 kg of lean body mass whereas TW lose 2.4 kg during the course of 12 months of cross-sex hormone therapy (Klaver et al., 2017). Evidence of lower-limb muscle size changes has been provided by a few studies of the first 12 months of treatment in transgender individuals undergoing hormone therapy. A substantial increase in muscle mass (10–19%) with testosterone administration was reported in TM (Elbers et al., 1999; Van Caenegem et al., 2015; Gooren & Bunck, 2004), while TW undergoing testosterone suppression and estrogen treatment experienced a 9% reduction in total thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (Elbers et al., 1999; Gooren & Bunck, 2004).
The only strength-related parameter previously explored was hand-grip strength in a cohort of TW undergoing 2 years of cross-hormone treatment (Van Caenegem et al., 2015). After the 2-year treatment, hand-grip strength had decreased by 9.5% (from 42 to 38 kg), but there was strikingly little change in lean body mass. Given the established importance of muscle mass and strength, in the lower-limbs in particular, in numerous sports (Suchomel et al., 2018; Häkkinen & Keskinen,1989) further assessments of performance indicators, as well as comprehensive muscle size and quality measures, are highly warranted.
Elite performing men continue to record faster record times in running events compared to women. These sex-based differences in running speed and endurance in humans are expected based on sexual dimorphisms that contribute to differences in the determinants of aerobic performance. Comparatively, the sexual dimorphisms contributing to sex-based differences in elite aerobic performance are not ubiquitous across other species that compete in running events.
Among humans, males have faster running performances than females ubiquitously across all race distances despite faster improvements in record times for females compared to males over the previous century (Joyner et al., 2020; Hunter et al., 2015; Joyner, 2017).
The concentration of hemoglobin in blood is higher for males, contributing to a higher oxygen carrying capacity among males compared to females (Vahlquist, 1950).
Among humans, much of the differences in the current world record performances between males and females are likely due to sexual dimorphisms. Our data supports that the large sex-related difference of ~10% or more in human elite athletic performance are not observed between the sexes in horses and greyhounds. Continued studies on both human and animal performance in athletic events are needed to drive advancement of physiological questions and sex differences.
These sexual dimorphisms are largely attributed to the divergence in serum testosterone that begins at ~12 years of age, thus, sex-related differences in elite athletic performance are nominal or perhaps nonexistent prior to the onset of the puberty-related increase in testosterone for male youths (Senefeld et al., 2019).
The ~10% sex-related difference appears to be pervasive among many factors that contribute to running performance, thus, it may not be surprising that there is a nearly ubiquitous sex-related difference of performance in elite sports in adult humans, (eg, running, cycling, triathlon, rowing) of ~10% (Senefeld et al., 2019; Keenan et al., 2018; Whipp & Ward, 1992; Thibault et al., 2010).
Brigid Kosgei’s record-setting marathon performance does not eclipse the top 5000 performances of all-time for males, and this observation is generalizable to all race distances. In stark contrast, female horses and dogs have bested elite male horses and dogs on several occasions.
These 10 trans women won national or international competitions
With so much recent public conversation about trans women in women's sports, I was struck by a post by trans advocate…
Lia Thomas won 4 Ivy League titles, set records. Iszac Henig won 2 titles
Feb 21, 12:15am ET: Lia Thomas had a record-setting Ivy league Championships meet, taking three individual conference…
Haters gonna hate: World champion McKinnon wins again
A year ago, a philosophy professor from the College of Charleston by way of Canada put up a gold medal performance at…
“McKinnon made her case on paper and then closed the case with sprint sweeps and a second world title. After the victory lap, she sported a larger azure-salmon-cream banner in triumph before receiving her gold medal on the podium.
EDITOR’S NOTE: After publishing this story, Rachel McKinnon tweeted that our original headline (“Trans cyclist Rachel McKinnon keeps winning”) was “false,” maintaining that she does not always win. This is an important point, of course, and we have consistently reported this talking point in our coverage of trans athletes CeCé Telfer, Athena del Rosario, Andraya Yearwood, and others: trans athletes do not win every event they compete in, and that fact is conveniently overlooked by their detractors.”
The OpenPowerlifting project aims to create a permanent, accurate, convenient, accessible, open archive of the world's…
Fallon Fox is still the bravest athlete in history
In 2013, when Fallon Fox came out publicly as trans in professional mixed martial arts, she was the target of a torrent…
Sports, an activity that ~55% of high school students participate in, is “a form of physical activity that, through recreational or competitive participation, aims to develop or maintain skills, fitness, mental well-being, and social-emotional health” (National Youth Sports Strategy, 2019).
High Heels — A Supernormal Stimulus
Why I Always Have GamerGirl in High Heels
Tom Jacobs — Pacific Standard (1/2/2013, original publication date):
“A woman walking in high heels is a “supernormal stimulus” — that is, an enhanced version of a stimulus found in nature.
While wearing high-heeled shoes, the women “walked in a fashion more characteristic of female gait.” Specifically, “walkers in high heels took smaller, more frequent steps,” and this reduction in the length of their stride was accompanied by “increased rotation and tilt of the hips.”
In other words, they argue, high heels exaggerate [sex differences in walking & make the wearer appear more feminine]. This stimulates “sexual arousal in males,” as well as increased attentiveness on the part of women who are scoping out potential competitors for male attention.
Heels — Persuad & Bruggen — Psychology Today (8 / 28/ 2015):
“The biomechanical results are also consistent with the theory that wearing high heels makes women look more attractive by making them more feminine, as the effect of heels was to exaggerate some sex-speciﬁc elements of female gait including:
- greater pelvic rotation
- increased vertical motion at the hip
- shorter strides
- higher number of steps per minute.
The authors of this new study contend that high heels appear to act in a similar way to what is referred to in evolutionary theory as a “super releaser.” For example, some birds prefer large artificial eggs that they cannot even sit on, to their own normal size eggs. Female baboons with a larger than normal swelling of the bottom associated with the sexually receptive period of their cycle, arouse greater sexual interest in males. [High heels have the same effect on human males because they] exaggerate sex-speciﬁc aspects of the female walk, [producing a supernormal stimulus & thus sexual arousal in men].
But there have been numerous fashions that have not been congruent with an evolutionary model. For example, female shoulder pads in the 1980s emphasized a particularly male aspect of the body. Flapper dresses in the 1920s didn’t emphasize the female ﬁgure, the authors of this study point out.
Fashions by their very nature are ephemeral, but trends that endure (such as high heels for females) emphasize sex-speciﬁc aspects of the body. Other styles, such as shoulder pads, will reoccur infrequently over time, as they are poorly matched with our biology.
[In the 1980s]… “As women took charge, they had to become ‘masculine’ in dress and appearance. Broad shoulders = alpha male = power and status. ‘Workwear’ for women still mimics male apparel… but this should also be a transient fashion if more women achieve high status roles.”
Morris et al., 2013 — High Heels
Davis & Arnocky, 2020
In the current review, appearance enhancement is described as a self-promotion strategy used to enhance reproductive success by rendering oneself more attractive than rivals to mates, thereby increasing one’s mate value. The varied ways in which humans enhance their appearance are described, as well as the divergent tactics used by women and men to augment their appearance, which correspond to the preferences of opposite-sex mates in a heterosexual context.
Ji Lai et al., 2021
Female reproductive value is inferred by examining external physical cues (Garza et al., 2016). Women of higher reproductive value show a stronger attractiveness in terms of facial features and having sexual figures (Andrews et al., 2017). These facial features usually include facial adiposity, plump lips, a small chin, thin jaws, and high cheekbones, all of which make the face look attractive (Karremans et al., 2010). Sexual figures are often taken to mean a slender waist, a low waist-to-hip ratio, firm breasts, and a relatively low body mass index (BMI); these features are considered to be reliable indicators of body attractiveness in women (Kościński, 2013; Sugiyama, 2015).
To increase their mating opportunities, women adjust their behaviors to accommodate men’s abovementioned preferences. For example, women like to put on makeup when dating, because they believe makeup makes them look healthier (Bielfeldt et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2016) by reducing the signs of age and increasing facial attractiveness (Porcheron et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2015). Women will spend more money on beauty products to increase their attractiveness despite economic difficulties. This behavior is viewed as an instinctive response to the intensified competition for spouses in difficult times (Hill et al., 2012). Furthermore, for reasons of mating motivation, women are willing to help others in public (Griskevicius et al., 2007). In other words, women want to be seen in public to be kind, helpful, moral, and generous as this type of behavior could be admired by members of the opposite sex, thus enhancing the women’s mating value.
UC Presidential Policy on Gender Recognition and Lived Name
The UC Presidential Policy on Gender Recognition and Lived Name has been released and has implications for our daily practices, as well as many of our student, employee, alumni, affiliate, and patient data systems and IT structures. Full implementation of this policy will ensure a more inclusive, respectful environment for all people at UC San Diego.
The policy requires that at least three equally recognized gender options must be available on university-issued documents and IT Resource systems — woman, man, and nonbinary. The policy also requires that lived names, also referred to as preferred names, should be used at all times. Legal names must not be used if a lived name is available. If a lived name is available, legal names must be kept confidential. Legal names must not be published on documents or displayed in IT Resource systems that do not require legal names. Additionally, the policy requires efficient processes for students, employees, alumni, patients and affiliates to retroactively amend their gender designations and lived names on university-issued documents.
Implementation of this policy is required by the end of 2023, and will take extensive effort from all on our campus and in our Health system. Information, education, and training regarding the UC Presidential Policy on Gender Recognition and Lived Name are available through the UC Learning system. You can access the training directly using your Single Sign On. A frequently asked questions (FAQ) is available on our gender recognition resource website.
Thank you for all you have done and will do to make our campus a more inclusive, welcoming community for all.
“Top doctors told the New York Times that transgender swimmer Lia Thomas still has an unfair advantage over biological females despite the athlete having undergone testosterone suppressing therapy.
The transgender swimmer, who was born a man, stoked controversy after winning the 500-yard NCAA women’s championship in March.
Florida Governor Ron DeSantis responded by asserting that the real winner was the biological female competitor who came in second place.
After entering female competitions, Thomas has soared in national rankings, jumping from 32nd place in men’s meets to eighth in the 1,650-yard female freestyle.
Female athletes who have questioned whether Thomas has an unfair advantage have been branded “transphobic.”
Top Doctors Say Trans Swimmer Has Unfair Advantage
Broward County (Florida) Public Schools' district has been accused by a parents advocacy group of instructing staff to…
Makeup application tends to mimic our biological predilections (Toledano, 2013):
- foundation satisfies the preference for smooth, homogenous skin (Grammar et al., 2003)
- concealer camouflages blueish tones that detract from facial attractiveness (Fink et al., 2001)
- blush increases skin saturation, which is perceived as “attractive and healthy”
- and lipstick creates the desired luminance contrast between skin and lip color (Stephen, 2010)