A Cite to Behold
The face that launched a thousand ships…
(Just adding some citation lists here from previous posts; not much new. Storage space.)
The Beauty, Truth & Ugly Behind My First Year of Blogging
Braving the Weird WordPress World
Mary Chang: “Did I wow those bloggers who followed me right away after my launch?
Nope. I was initially thrilled, but I learned over time most bloggers probably don’t read my writing but are merely liking or following me for me to like them and follow their blogs.
I thought I’d have more than 69 followers after 365 days, but the truth is — my blog acts as a storage space that functions better than my shoebox.”
2.25 Update — Avoiding Extraverted Faces
“…men with dispositionally higher perceived infectability (PI) demonstrated reduced preferences for extraverted female faces, whereas higher PI in women predicted a reduced preference for extraverted male faces.
This relationship between higher PI and reduced preferences for extraverted faces provides partial support for the hypothesis that pathogen concerns facilitate stronger preferences for [introverted] individuals, an adaptive response to mitigate contact with disease vectors” (Brown & Sacco, 2016).
Brown, M., & Sacco, D. F. (2016). Avoiding extraverts: Pathogen concern downregulates preferences for extraverted faces. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(4), 278–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0064-6
Budnick, J. (2016). “Straight girls kissing”? Understanding same-gender sexuality beyond the elite college campus. Gender & Society, 30(5), 745–768.
Racial Hierarchy of Life Opportunity Distribution
Women of every race — except multiracials where males are more likely to use filter for reasons I’m too sleepy to try & understand yet — were more likely to use lightening filters than males
Why did you include ‘MaleGaze’
#GamerGirl: Because bisexual women dating women & (especially) lesbians are least likely to use lightening filters
→ Anyone currently dating interracially is more likely to use skin lightening filters than those that aren’t dating interracially.
→ People dating interracially are ESPECIALLY likely to use whitening filters
Gay men may use filters more than straight men #MaleGaze (again)
Gay men certainly appear to use filters more than gay women (we need more gay male subjects), but it’s still the case that no one uses filters as much as straight women (Dhir et al., 2016; Elias & Gill, 2018)
Some Countries Discriminate More Than Others
Quillian et al., 2019 (assume these are all direct quotes):
Do some countries discriminate more than others? Evidence from 97 field experiments of racial…
Comparing levels of discrimination across countries can provide a window into large-scale social and political factors…
“France has the highest racial hiring discrimination rate.
2nd Place = Sweden
We find discrimination against minorities, irrespective of their specific origins, in Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, the United States, and Germany.
The level of hiring discrimination against minority groups varies considerably across countries. On average:
- Whites receive 65% to 100% more callbacks in France & Sweden than minorities
- in Germany, the USA, & Norway, they receive 20–40% more
In high-discrimination countries, Whites receive nearly 2x the callbacks of minorities; in low-discrimination countries, Whites receive about 25% more.” (Quillian et al., 2019)
After cleaning and pre-processing the data, using natural language processing and social network analysis techniques, a set of emotions is extracted from them along with their sentiment characteristics
Whereas celebrities and politicians posted positive messages, the scientific and health authorities often employed a negative vocabulary. The posts with positive sentiment gained more likes and relative likes than nonpositive. During the pandemic, the tweets of celebrities and politicians related to COVID-19 outperform those coming from health and scientific institutions.
The largest number of likes was received by tweets of celebrities (median nominal, relative likes; 14,918, 0.036 percent), politicians (259, 0.174 percent), and health agencies (231, 0.007 percent). Most retweeted messages were also posted by celebrities (2,366, 0.005 percent), health agencies (130, 0.004 percent), and politicians (55, 0.041 percent)
Kaminski et al., 2020
China — Ong et al., 2020
- If irony could tell a story…
The #OneChildPolicy has resulted in a surplus of men in China’s #Millennial & #iGen generations.
- At the same time, there are many **LEFTOVER WOMEN** as a result of…
A. High Status Women’s aversion to men who have a lower income than themselves. So what happens when a high status women encounters a high status male?
B. The competitive entry of gorgeous lower-status women
- Beautiful low status women can outcompete educated/wealthy women for high status men because they’re less threatening to men’s ego (apparently regardless of men’s status…).
“The larger drop in the marriage rate as the women’s income exceed that of her husband for high-income women is consistent with high-income women being even more willing to settle for men with only slightly higher or equal income than themselves than low income women.
This is because high income women face competition for high-income men from beautiful low-income women, while beautiful low-income women do not face similar competition from high-income women for low income men.
This higher level of competition constrains high-income women to a lower average match surplus from their mate’s income than low income women (Ong et al., 2020, p. A4).”
The Recursive Loop
- The coming year could be a story of two worlds undermining each other. Certain countries will approach herd immunity by vaccinating almost every citizen. Other countries could see mass casualties and catastrophic waves of reinfection — potentially with variants that evolved in response to the immunity conferred by the very vaccines to which these populations do not have access. In the process, these hot spots themselves will facilitate rapid evolution, giving rise to even more variants that could make the vaccinated populations susceptible to disease once again.
In a recursive loop, the virus could come back to haunt the vaccinated, leading to new surges and lockdowns in coming years. The countries that hoard the vaccine without a plan to help others do so at their own peril.
Female Tinder users are more careful in their approach, with 91% reporting that they only liked profiles that they actually felt attracted to (compared to 72% of men)
35% of men report casually liking most Tinder profiles (the no-look swipe; maximize chances of at least one person swiping back — the digital version of flirting with every woman at the party)
After childbirth, mothers quit their job less, but temporarily stop working and are dismissed more than fathers. The gender gap in temporary leaves is higher for natives, while the gender gap in dismissals for immigrants (Adrian Nieto, 2020).
Using an event study approach with retrospective data drawn from SHARE for 29 European countries we show that motherhood effects go beyond the well studied effects of labor market participation decisions: the arrival of the first child substantially affects the uptaking of alternative modes of employment, such as part-time and self-employment, that are characterized by flexible or reduced work schedules but also lower pay on average. We also show that the size of labor market responses to motherhood are larger in societies with more conservative social-norms or with weak policies regarding work-life balance (Inés Berniell et al., 2020)
“Analyzing information from over 2.5 million job advertisements on three different employment search websites in Mexico, we find evidence that advertisements seeking “communal” characteristics, stereotypically associated with women, specify lower salaries than those seeking “agentic” characteristics, stereotypically associated with men.”
Ads with agentic words increase the salary by 6–11%
Ads using appearance related words have a +5–7% effect the salary, and these ads were mostly directed at women.
“Overall, the analysis of categories indicates that ads directed at women specify more communal characteristics as well as those related to appearance, language, software, and customer interaction, while those directed at men more frequently specify time and travel availability” (Eva Arceo-Gómez et al., 2020).
Motherhood Wage Penalty in Spain
Using data from social security records, they found an 11% decrease in women’s annual earning the year after their first child was born.
For some reason men’s income was unaffected.
(Alicia de Quinto et al., 2020)
Are You 2 Just Friends? (Infidelity PrePrint)
The benefit of including lesbians/gays in romantic relationships research is they enable the isolation of the variable biological sex. For example, the birth of their first child is associated with a motherhood wage penalty for both straight women in heterosexual couples (22% reduction in income) and the gestational lesbian in same-sex couples (13% reduction in income) (Andresen & Nix, 2019). However, the gestational lesbian “catches up with her partner around two years after birth” and “by four years after birth there is no longer a child penalty,” whereas the 22% drop in income experienced by straight women “translates to an overall household income drop of 6–8% for heterosexual household” and “this household income penalty persists over time” (Andresen & Nix, 2019, p. 7). Moreover, for heterosexual women, the child penalty is similar whether she gave birth to her child or adopted her child (Kleven et al., 2020).
- The loss of income due to children is often termed the “motherhood-penalty” or “child-penalty” and its importance has been outlined for a number for counties such as United States (Chung et al., 2017), Denmark (Kleven et al., 2018), Norway (Bergsvik et al., 2018), the United Kingdom (Kuziemko et al., 2018) and Sweden (Angelov et al., 2016).
A brief moment of nostalgia for #scantrons & #iClicker during the first Memory lecture.
Nostalgia & memory… get it :p
I don’t know who needs to hear this, but the Levels of Processing Theory demonstration still works via #Zoom
Independent of the perceived closeness between two individuals, it was found that men were also less comfortable with more intimate styles of greetings than were women (Felmlee, Sweet, & Sinclair, 2012).
Indeed, this male discomfort with perceived intimacy plays itself out in the very manner that men tend to express intimacy with one another; same-gender friendships among women are more likely to participate in conversation (emotional intimacy), while same-gender male friendships that focus more on physical activity (Baumgarte & Nelson, 2009).
Male sexuality: the fear of being considered homosexual has played into reasons why women are typically more comfortable with same-sex touching than are men (Floyd, 2000).
Men are less likely to display physical intimacy with other males than they are with their female friends (Derlega, Lewis, Harrison, & Winstead, 1989).
Perhaps this can be attributed to greetings between males being seen as interactions or enactments of masculine performances (Migliaccio, 2009).
- the prevalence of cross-sex friendship has a curvilinear pattern of occurrence.
v1 — Children typically engage in primarily same-sex friendships and appear to avoid opposite-sex friendships because they have cooties (Rose, 1985).
v2. — Cross-sex friendships are most common in adolescence and early adulthood (McBride & Field, 1997; Sanborn, 2005). It is argued that one relevant function they serve is a training ground for opposite-sex romantic relationships.
v3. Opposite-sex friendships decrease again in adulthood, usually in association with marriage, family commitments, and/or jealous heterosexual partners (O‘Meara, 1989; Rose, 1985; Sanborn, 2005).
Update 1.17.2021 (Cover Your Nose)
Nasal Resistance was lowest for Black Americans
“Variations in normal nasal shapes and sizes of the external nose were due to evolutionary adaptation of humans to climatic conditions. …the ‘‘platyrrhine’’ (broad-nose) nasal index, described as a typical nose of the African race is associated with a hot, moist climate; a typical Caucasian nose, classified as ‘‘leptorrhine’’ (narrow-nose) nasal index is associated with a cold, dry climate; and a classic Asian nose is considered medium sized and is classified as ‘‘mesorrhine’’. In addition, studies have reported that the internal nasal morphology of Caucasians tend to be narrower and longer than AfricanAmericans (Blacks).”
“The ethnicity with the lowest nasal resistance was Black Americans, next to Hispanic Americans. White Americans & Asian Americans had the highest nasal resistance.”
XX — bathroom — Xy
(Just assume that literally everything is a direct quote in this section)
In Italy, Germany, the United States, Spain, & Brazil, women’s romanticism was clearly evident in their bathroom graffiti (Teixeira, Otta & Siqueira, 2003).
The graffiti in men’s bathrooms included far more “tagging” (i.e., signatures or personal logos), potentially indicating territoriality or self-proclamation of status, while the graffiti in women’s bathrooms focused on love and relationships.
We first photographed the main (bathroom) doors, walls, floors, sinks, ceilings, toilets and mirrors. Subsequently, we went into the stalls and photographed all graffiti, systematically working from the left to the right walls, then the floor, and where applicable, the ceiling. We made sure no person was in any of our photographs; if someone entered the bathroom we would halt data collection and in many cases leave temporarily. We examined the photographs on a laptop using thematic analysis. We relied on the thematic analysis approach used by Chang, Fisher and Meredith (2012) in their study of the topics of women’s paintings.
The abundance of tags in male bathrooms was tremendous, to the extent that we must conclude that the primary content of men’s graffiti is that expressed via tags. Tags were written over tags and the process repeated until the entire bathroom was only covered in tags.
Given that women desire men with high social status, as can be seen in how they manipulate language to indirectly determine the social standing of a potential mate for example (Gal, 1978), men who tag and increase in social status among other men may be perceived as more desirable by women and gain more reproductive success.
(Fisher & Radtke, 2014)
Latrinalia (Dundes, 1966)
From Cave Art to Bathroom Graffiti
Otta et al. (1996) found that age drove sex differences in regards to quantity. Their results indicated that females authored less graffiti than males in secondary schools but this difference vanished in college bathrooms.
[Nicholas et al., 2012]
“In the mid 1970s scholars began to view human territoriality over physical space and objects as a means to organize people so that violence, aggression, and overt domination were unnecessary. Stokols (1978: 271) argued that, “recent analyses have emphasized the cognitive and social-organizational functions of human territoriality rather than its biological (reproductive and survival-related) aspects.”
Territoriality over the physical world was found to be linked to identity construction (Altman & Chemers, 1980; Tuan, 1980), conflict management (Altman & Haythorn, 1967; Rosenblatt & Budd, 1975), safety (Brown, 1983), social cohesion (Altman, 1975; Brown & Werner, 1981; Lewis, 1979) and improved group effectiveness (Sundstrom & Altman, 1989).
Why Won’t He Break Up With Her?
Feelings of territoriality can also impede creativity and decision making by limiting the possible options considered or by fueling escalation of commitment to a bad decision or losing course of action. To the extent that individuals or groups invest in, and identify with, particular choices they make, or ideas they share, the less willing they are to concede the lack of value in those ideas or abandon them altogether for better ones. Thus, to the extent that we are more tied to our own ideas and creations, we are less willing to take on and endorse others ideas, even if they may be superior.
Me-Time (Pierce et al., 2001)
Beth Cassidy didn’t just buy a $7 coffee to have a casual chat with you & end up wasting 30mg of her caffeine.
Attention costs money.
Attention span is a territory & it’s primary focus is production.
GamerGirl: Sorry Chad, you’ll have to wait until caffeine-crashed Beth is done with her classwork to respond to your 50 texts where you clearly overanalayzed what “You seem nice, Chad” means. (ProTip: it means… you seem nice. #MindBlown )
Aggressive driving may occur when social norms for defending a primary territory (i.e., one’s automobile) become confused with less aggressive norms for defending a public territory (i.e., the road).
Both number of territory markers (e.g., bumper stickers, decals) and attachment to the vehicle were significant predictors of aggressive driving. Mere presence of a territory marker predicts increased use of the vehicle to express anger and decreased use of adaptive/constructive expressions.
OnlyFans & COVID19
OnlyFans, a website dedicated to sex workers who provide paid sexual content to consumers from all around the world, had roughly 70,000 content creators in 2019. In mid-2020, that number spiked up to around 700,000 content creators. In addition to the massive growth in content creators, there has been a similar increase in consumers. In 2019, there were roughly 7 million users on the platform, and in mid-2020 that number was about 50 million (InfluencerMarketingHub (2020); Vaughn, 2019).
2020 was the record-breaking year for transgendered deaths in America, most of whom were sex workers (Avery, 2020).
In real life, women are generally attracted to rich and/or powerful men (Dunn & Hill, 2014). Men with lower status are also more often rejected as potential partner on dating sites (Gebauer, Leary, & Neberich, 2012).
1/11/2021 Update — Diversity isn’t Inclusion
Racial Water (Dixon et al., 2008)
Ruback and Snow (1993) used a combination of naturalistic observation and quasi-experimentation to explore the interrelations between race and reactions to various forms of ‘intrusion’ at a water fountain. From a complex set of results, two findings can be flagged.
First, people tended to delay longer before ‘intruding’ upon a drinker of other racial groups than they did before intruding on a drinker of the same race.
Second, and perhaps more revealing, reactions to ‘intrusion’ were also racially patterned, with drinkers lingering longer at the water fountain in response to different-race than to a same-race intrusion.
According to Ruback and Snow, the delay expressed a form ‘non-conscious racism’, manifested via territorial resistance to leaving the water fountain when the person waiting in line behind them wasn’t the same race.
The fact that they drank more water than they wanted/intended to is ultimately healthy for their body, though it’s socially unhealthy that their improved hydration was an incidental consequence of racial bias.
Micro-Ecology of Contact
Welcome! An update in 2017 This set of web-pages presents an overview of our research on the 'micro-ecology of contact…
“Perceptions that members of one racial group have about how members of another group view or relate to them. According to Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson, racial avoidance may occur because someone is worried about how they will be perceived by members of other groups.”
(Literally similar to the findings of Robinson et al., 2020. It’s the same reason you won’t see someone Black or transgender or Asian or Muslim going to the Republican National Convention for fun [or because they expect a positive social outcome] very often.)
High School Cafeterias & the Race Table
“Bodily placements actively perform, constitute and stabilize ethnoracial identities, rendering them visible and salient to students. Micro-ecological systems that emerge via seemingly voluntary practices of self-segregation during lunchtime in turn constrain what is accepted as ‘normal’ or ‘natural’ behavior within a given locale & illustrate how racial hierarchy is established via its inscription within the ordinary environments in which we encounter and relate to one another” (p. 1559).
It also fits with work on implicit prejudice, which has sometimes taken spatial distance as an index of unconscious prejudice (e.g., Amodio & Devine, 2006, study 3). Indeed, it seems plausible to us that many micro-ecological patterns result from motivations that are enacted habitually and without much conscious deliberation.”
“Dixon and Durrheim’s (2003) study of changing relations on a South African beach → country-wide processes of desegregation continue to be offset by processes of resegregation on beaches themselves, as stark patterns of racial isolation within so-called ‘umbrella spaces’ (intimate groups sharing a micro-territorial unit).
White holiday makers left areas of the beach that became densely populated with Black holiday makers and, at certain critical times, vacated the beach entirely.”
“Research on micro-ecological processes concentrates on situations where group members are physically co-present, relatively unaffected by structural or economic restraints, and free to occupy social space as they see fit, it brings into sharper focus the ‘preferential’ dimension of segregation.
Brown (1981) Invasion of Shared Space (shopping mall in West Central Ohio)
“Dyadic groups of male confederates of varying racial compositions (black-black, white-white, and black-white) were strategically placed in a thoroughfare & the behavior of approaching shoppers was observed by two other researchers standing behind the fountain.
Results → shoppers were more likely to walk through (rather than around) the black dyad than through either the white or mixed race dyad, arguably showing less respect for the Black dyad’s shared space.”
[Yup, not uncommon to have someone walk right in front of me rather than going around. At some point in my 20s I started reducing the space between where I was facing & the next closest form of matter in front of me, thereby encouraging the person to walk behind me.]
“Hall (1968) once observed, it can be highly instructive to record how people respond to a ‘breach in spatial ettiquette’ (p. 88).” [see above]
Sundstrom (2003, 83): “When we divide spatially, we cannot help but to inscribe and produce the categories and identities associated with our spatial divisions; with racialized spaces come race’.
“Segregation is more extensive in the ‘backstage’ areas of educational settings (Zisman & Wilson, 1992), where students can engage in voluntary interactions free from official vigilance or intervention, than it is in more formal settings such as the classroom and the lecture theatre. Micro-ecological divisions may emerge when individuals can exercise some degree of choice in their use of social space.”
(Dixon et al, 2008)
Dixon, J., Tredoux, C., Durrheim, K., Finchilescu, G., & Clack, B. (2008). ‘The inner citadels of the color line’: Mapping the micro‐ecology of racial segregation in everyday life spaces. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(4), 1547–1569.
“More than half (53%) of all Black people in the country, as well as more than one in three (36%) Hispanic or Latino people in the country. The diversity of the South also includes LGBTQ people: roughly one out of every three (32%) LGBTQ adults in the United States lives in the South, more than in any other region in the country.”
¨Even though they compose the majority of the LGBTQIAce+ community, bisexual individuals still experience biphobia, sometimes even from their own community. A 2017 study done by American University found that stressors had more of an impact because bisexual people face what researchers described as “double discrimination” from both the queer and non-queer community, according to PinkNews.”
“Among adults who identify as LGB, bisexuals comprise a slight majority (1.8% compared to 1.7% who identify as lesbian or gay).
Women are substantially more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Bisexuals comprise more than half of the lesbian and bisexual population among women. Conversely, gay men comprise substantially more than half of gay and bisexual population among men.
An estimated 19 million Americans (8.2%) report that they have engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and nearly 25.6 million Americans (11%) acknowledge at least some same-sex sexual attraction.”
“Bisexuals are assumed to be gay or straight based on the gender of the person they are currently dating. This is called bi-erasure.”
The Sex of Punctuation (Medium)
Exclamation points is just a part of my overall performance as GamerGirl, but one with decades of research indicating that women use more exclamation points & exclamatory prose than males:
- Carol Scates (1981): women used more exclamation points
- Rubin & Greene (1992): women used more exclamation AND CAPITALIZATION
- Herring (1994): Women used more supportive discourse online; including more thanks/gratitude with exclamatory punctuation
- Winn & Rubin (2001): women used more nonessentials and excitability markers than men’’
- Colley & Todd (2002): women use “multiple exclamation points” more than men !!!!
- Waseleski (2006): women used more exclamation points; used for different reasons, not solely excitability
- Aybar (2019)
- Simanian, Diaz, Willis, et al., 2021? (Yup)
Identical Twins CAN Differ
If we accept one of the basic principles of the scientific method — that consistently observed phenomena reflect reality — then: Identical twins CAN differ sometimes.
For instance, monozygotic twins where one is lesbian & the other straight show different digit ratios. Specifically, the lesbian twins have digit ratios that are more masculine than their straight sisters.
However, this pattern has only been found in:
- Japan (Hiraishi et al., 2012)
- Europe (Watts et al., 2018)
- United States (Hall and Love, 2003)
- Butch lesbians have more masculine ratios than femme lesbians (Brown et al., 2002).
- if you gathered 100 women with a low 2D:4D digit ratio (ring finger longer than index finger) & 100 women with a high ratio (fingers are roughly equal), there would be more lesbians in the first group than in the second group.
Given the relevance of testosterone (specifically prenatal androgen exposure) in regards to this ratio, it should be easy to conclude that physiological differences in hormones are relevant biomarkers in female sexual orientation.
Even among straight women, those with a lower 2D:4D ratio are more likely to be tomboys (Atkinson et al., 2017).
Women’s 2D:4D ratio
Several lines of research have found the lower 2D:4D ratio to be associated with female athletes at various levels:
- youth level (Handball) (that’s a sport?) (Baker et al., 2013)
- high school varsity level (Giffin et al., 2012)
- NCAA level (college tennis) (Hsu et al., 2015)
- national level (Pokrywka et al., 2005)
- Olympic level (Eklund et al., 2020)
Female athletes with higher testosterone have…:
- faster skiing times (Manning et al., 2002),
- better endurance running performance (Manning et al., 2007)
- better national fencing rank (Voracek et al., 2010).
- faster rowing times (Hull et al., 2015),
- stronger on bench press (Eklund et al., 2020)
And a recent study (in review) looked at athletes’ sexual orientation:
- non-heterosexual women’s superiority in the WNBA (Willis et al., in review) [now in revise & resubmit phase]
- “Even when female testosterone is pathologically raised in polycystic ovarian syndrome the values are still a fraction (˜1/20th) of that observed in males.”
- In Britain and the United States, many more women commit suicide during their premenstrual week than during other times, and 49% of newly convicted women committed their crime within 4 days before or after their menses (Chiat, 1986)
WNBA & Sexuality
And a recent study (in revision) looked at athletes’ sexual orientation:
- non-heterosexual women’s superiority in the WNBA (Willis et al., revise-and-resubmit)
#GamerGuy: What if it’s just because they’re biting their nails or something? I think you’re missing that confound.
#GamerGirl: …🤦♀️ We rarely have perfect measures of anything. Is that a reason not to ever measure something? To suggest that hormone differences have nothing to do with female sexuality at this point would be like suggesting that 20 year olds (on average) are shorter than 2 year old toddlers (on average). Even clocks don’t have perfect construct validity.
XX & Why
Here are the previously mentioned studies documenting an XX Advantage against COVID (months are reported instead of year, because obviously): Antonio Guimarães et al., September;
Berlin et al., May;
Chakravarty et al., July;
Chengzhen Dai et al., October;
Conti et al., April;
Di Stadio et al., April;
Ding et al., July;
Jeremy Gold et al., April;
Jin et al., April;
Kabarriti et al., September;
Nascimento et al., March;
Price-Haywood et al., June;
Richardson et al., April;
Sara Cromer et al., September;
Scully et al., June;
Silvia Munoz-Price et al., September;
Takahashi et al., June;
Tian Gu et al., October;
Wang et al., 2020;
Wenham et al., March;
Yehia et al., August;
Zhao et al., 2020;
Zijian et al., 2020.
Estrogen has more immunoenhancing effects (overall) whereas testosterone is associated with more immunosuppressive effects (overall) (Cutolo et al., 2006; Taneja, 2018).
Estrogen for the win
- Amgalan et al., 2020 (XX > XY)
- Bengtsson et al., 2004
- Cattrini et al., 2020
- Cheng et al., 2020
- Costeira et al., 2020
- Ding et al., 2020
- Haitao et al., 2020 (XX > XY)
- Hewagama et al., 2009
- Khan, 2020
- Klein et al., 2016
- Paharkova-Vatchkova et al., 2004
- Siracusa et al., 2008
- White & Kirby, 2020 (XX > XY)
Sex & Memory
The Hippocampus (memory) is roommates with the amygdala (emotion) & women tend to be socialized to be in touch with their emotions whereas men are socialized to put all the emotions in the “man box” & never allow themselves to look inside or express or really feel anything.
Also, emotion is part of the content of material that one may try to remember. As such, using emotion would seemingly improve one’s memory trace of an event.
Thus, we can’t be surprised that the sex that has a higher emotional IQ & utilizes emotion is going to have better memory. indeed…
→ Women tend to outperform men in episodic memory function (Lundervold et al., 2014; Sunderaraman et al., 2013; Herlitz et al., 1997)
→ Women have a stronger capacity for retrieving memories (Loprinzi & Frith, 2018)
→ Men have a steeper age-associated memory decline (Ferreira et al., 2014)
→ Women outperform men in verbal episodic memory tasks (regardless of IQ) (Herlitz & Yonker, 2002)
→ Women access their memories with more precision (Skowronski et al., 1991) & speed (Davis, 1999) than men
→ Women describe memories with more emotional terminology (Fuentes & Desrocher, 2013)
→ better episodic memory (Asperholm et al., 2019)
JARRYD WILLIS convo with Research Assistant
Additional questions for qualitative coding: — Do subjects perceive filtering as a binary between real or fake, or a spectrum? — Are filters fair when accentuating something to make it look extra, or correcting something that was imperfect in the moment but the correction resembles the real intended self (compared to the ‘moment in time’ self)
1. I would argue it is a binary. Finstas are typically private accounts, where a follow request needs to be granted. On average, most people do not accept just anyone onto their finsta since its likely to include embarrassing pictures. Whereas in a real instagram, people actually put more time into it and are more selective about what they post
2. Are filters fair? In my opinion they are as it is a form of free speech. I think it is fair game as long as one isn’t being racist and is not harming themselves or anyone else. Similarly, I don’t mind when people photoshop their pictures. Yes, it does promote a standard that other people may feel compelled to compare themselves to, but it is their personal profile
There is a very powerful NeoLiberal stairway embedded in all this
For all the Dove Real Beauty campaigns & body positive promos… I think the assumption is that they’re aiming their messages at a body hostile culture
But in peeling back the NeoLiberal (or connectivist -utilitarian) pressures, that starts to feel like a paper tiger As far as social media (especially instagram) is concerned
The only culture creating THAT is all of us
The easiest correlation in social media is the LIKES & amount of skin showing correlation
No company is making that happen That is happening organically via users of the app/platform It’s an eerie post-feminist trend that suggests we need a 4th wave of Feminism to deconstruct
Oh yeah, I think for big advertisers, celebrities, and influencers should be held to a higher moral standard. I mean look at Kylie Jenner, lots of younger women want to be liker her and she makes profit off her posts. I believe 1.2 million per post
So in a way she is profiting off peoples insecurities
But feminism wave 3 seemed to argue more in the direction of using appearance as a source of female empowerment via online visibility
So it’s kinda like wave 4 would need to thread the needle somewhere in the middle
I’m pretty neutral as I see both sides 100%
That’s the fascinating part of this
— — — — — — — — — — — — — -
I literally praise my God-Sister for making a life for herself modeling & taking advantage of her Psych background to draw male patrons
I think someone with 800 followers who makes no profit off their posts is more justified to photoshop their pictures if it makes them feel good about themselves. The person isnt exploiting anyone in my opinion. Whereas someone with x million followers who’s making thousands if not millions off a single post might be held to a higher standard.
And at the same time I get the #LeanIn side & Representation Project side of the argument saying that it reiterates an older notion that appearance a key basis of valuation of women (Riley et al., 2016)
But then again, Kylie Jenner is a person too and deserves to feel good about herself so I see it that way as well
This is a very complex [insert descriptor]
It’s like a Tennis game where both players are hitting perfect shots from different Tennis courts
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Who is more likely to make a cyber-forensic check: Men or Women
- everyone looks good with that filter, even Spongebob
- are her breasts real?
- are those her nails or did she make them look extra?
- she’s obviously wearing contacts
- why is she using a snapchat filter on insta?
- her skin complexion isn’t that light
Do males notice/discuss these things more (or less) than women when looking at women’s images on instagram?
We already know males are least likely to notice when someone has new nails or a new haircut in-person, but does males’ in-person lack of awareness translate to social media?
If so, it may be the case that women who use more filters, retouching, etc will SUCCESSFULLY garner males’ attention, regardless of how obvious the digital fabrications are to his female friends
In a way, it creates an aesthetic arms race to portray the best unreal version of one’s fictional self
- Male politicians are more likely to be married. Based on heterosexual courtship norms, an unmarried man is more likely to be viewed as a failure by voters relative to an unmarried woman.
- Mothers tend to spend more of their income on their children than fathers do (improving their children’s health and education outcomes), & this predicts less political participation among women in terms (Duflo 2012). Even when men work more hours than their bae, they have more leisure time available (e.g., Xbox) than women due to #SecondShift (Burns, Schlozman, & Verba 2001).
- Mothers with toddlers are less likely to run for office than those with teenagers.
- Even so, married women are significantly more likely to run for office than single women (Gibson, 2019).
We are a nation of immigrants We build bridges, not walls. The rich diversity of our individual lives defines us collectively as Americans.
Lastly, the greatest triggers of negative emotions in spouses (particularly women), included taking a photo with a physically attractive rival of the spouse or updating a relationship status to a title that is not fully reflective of complete commitment (Muise et al., 2009).
That women are choosier may reflect gendered dating dynamics. Since women are more likely than men to be approached on the internet (Hitsch et al. 2010), stating their preferences may be more important, while men may have less incentive to change the default option, “any” for preferences.
Patterns of Racial-Ethnic Exclusion by Internet Daters
Abstract. Using data from 6070 U.S. heterosexual internet dating profiles, this study examines how racial and gender…
We’re sauteeing frameworks of reality (sex/race) over our fictional model that allows us to accept someone dodging bullets or casting magic spells.
The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public Health Association (APHA)…
The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public Health Association (APHA)
… The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public Health Association (APHA)ajph.aphapublications.org
White, European, Western, Caucasian, or :What? Inappropriate Labeling in Research on Race, Ethnicity, and Health
(Bhopal & Donaldson, 1998)
A Conversation with GamerGirl
Jarryd: When we return to life post-COVID, we’ll need some Courtesy Training (and perhaps Courtesy Refresher courses) on interpersonal behaviors that may have atrophied since March 2020 due to #SocialDistancing.
GamerGirl: True, but in the meantime, adhering to the following rules for affirmative consent when considering unlocking-opening-entering the private offices of magicians would be the least anyone who has been entrusted with a set of masterkeys could do.
Monday has the fewest COViD deaths of any day of the week
Distant Worlds are not just Final Fantasy worlds like Midgar or Vana’diel. They’re all games, all book, all the worlds we invent with our vast imaginations. Distant Worlds live inside us all, they never leave us. Their memories stay with us from childhood, through adulthood, forever. So never stop telling people about them. Never stop talking with people about them. And most of all, don’t be afraid to let YOUR worlds show, because the worlds you know and love are made by people who did.
I think a message about creative expression that brings the players in, inviting them to share their stories and ideas.