🎗️Mental Health & Courtship
When should someone reveal their mental health status to a new lover?
Synopsis of Results
Women were evenly split on the question of health disclosure whereas men strongly felt that GamerGirl should let the other person know. The sex of the lover is intentionally withheld, but if male respondents more often feel that they’ll likely be the ones paying for courtship activities then they may want to know someone’s health status sooner.
Moreover, female respondents may have sympathized with GamerGIRL. As such, this should be reassessed with the narrative centered on GamerGUY.
GamerGirl & her bae started dating while GamerGirl was taking a magic potion to deal with the chronic pain from her migraines. They’re approaching their 2 month anniversary & she trusts her lover enough now to disclose her mental health, but isn’t sure if she should. What should she do?
A. She should definitely disclose her mental health & that she takes medication by the two month anniversary. It’s been long enough; the other person deserves to know before going further.
B. Two months is too soon — period. Need to get to know them better & ensure you can truly trust them before sharing that.
C. It would depend on how experienced, patient, and/or empathetic her lover seems to be regarding mental health. Like, how maturely & thoughtfully does the person discuss stories related to Simone Biles & Naomi Osaka
D. She should see how bae behaves on days when she DOESN’T take medication. That way she can see how bae responds if she happens to have a migraine while they’re hanging out.
Who is the real person?
GamerGirl has Curse Disorder & her mental health practitioner (pictured above) prescribes her a magic potion to take each day since the Curse is a lifelong condition. Indeed, the medication works perfectly at reducing her migraines so she can get through her day peacefully/ with less pain.
Question: When GamerGirl takes the magic potion, is that truly who she is or is she someone different? Who is the real person?
A. Medicated = Real GamerGirl; it enables her to be who she would be if it were not for the disorder
B. Medicated = Not real GamerGirl; it’s just the effect of the potion & doesn’t reflect anything about her motivations, character, and/or personality
C. Something in between
D. Free points please
Control Condition — Common Cold
GamerGirl has a cold & her mental health practitioner prescribes her an antidote to take each day until the cold is gone. Indeed, the medication works perfectly at relieving her sinus pressure & other symptoms so she can get through her day peacefully/ with less pain.
Question: When GamerGirl takes the antidote, is that truly who she is or is she someone different? Who is the real person?
A. Medicated = Real GamerGirl; it enables her to be the person she was prior to catching the cold, and the person she will be again once the cold is gone
B. Medicated = Not real GamerGirl; it’s just the effect of the antidote & doesn’t reflect anything about her motivations, character, and/or personality
C. Something in between
D. Free points please
Table of Contents
· ADHD & Female Protection
∘ Assortative Mental Health Mating — Halvorsen et al. (2019)
∘ Assortative Mating & Bipolar Disorder (Gordovez & McMahon, 2020)
∘ Spousal Concordance in Health Beh Change (Falba & Sindelar, 2008)
∘ by Jennifer Siebel Newsom
Assortative Mental Health Mating — Halvorsen et al. (2019)
…due to assortative mating (the tendency among individuals with similar phenotypes — for instance mental disorder — to mate more often than expected by chance) (Peyrot et al., 2016; Grant et al., 2007; Matthews & Reus, 2001; de Jong et al., 2018), there is a completely analogue source of potential residual confounding with regard to the father’s family history of mental disorders. A reasonable proxy for the parental propensity to develop mental disorder could be the psychiatric history of the parents’ parents (i.e., the grandparents of the offspring followed up for mental disorders in the studies included here).
Interestingly, development of a mental disorder in the offspring was only consistently associated with in utero exposure to SSRI in the first trimester, which indicates that the effect of this potential misclassification is probably modest.
Gidaya et al. (2014) found that preconception use of an SSRI was also associated with a statistically significant increased risk of ASD in the offspring (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4–2.3).
Malm et al. (2016) found that when comparing offspring having been exposed to SSRI in utero to offspring of mothers with a mental disorder, who had not received psychopharmacological treatment, there was no difference in their risk of developing ASD (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.65– 1.20) or ADHD (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.77– 1.28).
Similarly, Brown et al. (2016) found that the risk of speech/language disorder was elevated for both offspring of mothers using an SSRI during pregnancy as well as for offspring of mothers diagnosed with a mental disorder, who did not use an SSRI during pregnancy — with no statistically significant difference in the risk of speech/ Language disorder between these two offspring groups (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.97–1.49).
In a sibling analysis, Sørensen et al. (2013) found that there was no difference in the risk of ASD when comparing offspring exposed to an SSRI in utero with their siblings, who had not been exposed to SSRI in utero (HR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.4–2.0).
Analogue results were found in the sibling analysis with ADHD as outcome performed by Laugesen et al. (2013) (HR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.4–1.4).
Taken together, these results clearly suggest that it is the underlying maternal mental disorder and not the in utero exposure to SSRIs, which is responsible for the increased risk of mental disorder in the offspring.
Halvorsen, A., Hesel, B., Østergaard, S. D., & Danielsen, A. A. (2019). In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and development of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 139(6), 493–507.
Assortative mating for ADHD (Steele et al., 2020)
Assortative Mating & Bipolar Disorder (Gordovez & McMahon, 2020)
Assortative mating refers to nonrandom mating among individuals in a population (Merikangas & Spiker, 1982). People with similar phenotypes may be more likely to mate or may selectively avoid potential mates with other phenotypes.
Assortative mating can lead to the accumulation of risk alleles in subsequent generations, with consequent increases in rates or severity of illness across generations of a family, a phenomenon known as anticipation (McInnis et al., 1993).
Recent, large population-based studies have found similar patterns of assortative mating across psychiatric and other traits, including height (Stulp et al., 2017), activity level (Montiglio et al., 2016), emotional intelligence (Smieja & Stolarski, 2018), and educational and social status (Krzyzanowska & Mascie-Taylor, 2014).
Merikangas KR. Assortative mating for psychiatric disorders and psychological traits. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1173–80
Sample. The analytic sample includes 6,072 individuals who are married at the time of the initial HRS survey and who remain married and in the sample at the time of the 1996 and 2000 waves.
Principal Findings. We consistently find that when one spouse improves his or her behavior, the other spouse is likely to do so as well. This is found across all the behaviors analyzed, and persists despite controlling for many other factors.
Conclusions. Simultaneous changes occur in a number of health behaviors. This conclusion has prescriptive implications for developing interventions, treatments, and policies to improve health habits and for evaluating the impact of such measures.
newlyweds showed (a) strong similarity in age, religiousness, and political orientation; (b) moderate similarity in education and verbal intelligence; © modest similarity in values; and (d) little similarity in matrix reasoning, self- and spouse-rated personality, emotional experience and expression, and attachment.
“Men and women reliably differ on the importance of certain criteria when considering romantic relationships. From an evolutionary perspective that explains sex differences in mating effort and parental investment, men should prioritise attractiveness and women, wealth. Personality traits also signal important information about relationship potential with those of the dark triad facilitating short-term relationships. However, how the vulnerable dark triad traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and secondary psychopathyfunction in relationships remains relatively unexplored. Even though interpersonally tempestuous, individuals high in these traits might be alluring in that they offer a thrilling relationship for the short-term, so long as they are also physically appealing. Across two studies, we examined sex differences in partner preference judged on attractiveness in relation to BPD and secondary psychopathy across short- and long-term relationship contexts. Men were willing to engage in relationships with attractive women high in BPD traits, while women compensated low attractiveness for wealth in long-term dating, and did not desire secondary psychopathy in any relationship.
“Dark triad traits may be adaptive because they facilitate short-term mating opportunities in men (Mealey, 1995), although whether this applies to women remains largely un-investigated.
Indeed, women prefer high dark triad personality types for short-term dating (Qureshi, Harris & Atkinson, 2016). Even though dark triad personality types are adversarial, they are associated with fitness outcomes such as power (Kajonius, Persson & Jonason, 2015), masculinity and testosterone (Marcinkowska, Lyons & Helle, 2015; Pfattheicher, 2016).
“For some individuals, a relationship with someone high in BPD and secondary-psychopathy might be exciting (Giebel, Moran, Schawohl & Weierstall, 2015). Indeed, secondary psychopathy is associated with fun and sensation seeking behaviour (Hughes, Moore, Morris, & Corr, 2012). As predicted by the HCM, problematic behaviour might be compensated for if the partner is particularly attractive, and particularly so for men who are more likely to prioritise attractiveness in the first instance” (p . 3).
“. Attractiveness is similarly important for both males and females (Fig. 4). However, when attractiveness is low, males and females differ in importance placed on wealth as a compensatory partner characteristic (Fig. 4). Females also appear to show a preference for either attractiveness or wealth but not necessarily both in combination. Males disfavour high levels of wealth and prioritise physical attractiveness when making calculations of mate preference.
Opposing emphasis placed on wealth across genders is also reflected in the near significant difference (p = .08) between females preferring long-term dating with a partner of low attractiveness and high wealth and males preferring such a partner only for short-term dating (p. 4)
According to sexual dimorphism in parental investment (ConroyBeam et al., 2015), women potentially discern partner value more often according to personality traits such as altruism beyond attractiveness because it provides information about a host of critical factors such as the man’s ability to, and likelihood of, caring and provisioning their child and her (Bhogal, Galbraith & Manktelow, 2018). (p. 5)
A man might ignore the potential consequences of a tempestuous relationship when the woman he wishes to take advantage of is seemingly more available to him than other women (Brüne, 2016). As such, this explains why the HCM is advisory as well as predictive. Results supported the CMM. Women rated wealthy, low attractive partners as more datable then men did for their equivalents, for both short- and long-term dating. These findings converge with the extant literature about women evaluating partners on their ability to provision, especially for long-term relationships (Buss, 1989; Buss & Schmitt, 1993). Interestingly, it would be thought as the optimal option, that the most attractive wealthy men would elicit higher datable ratings, however low attractive wealthy men were more desirable. Potentially, high attractive wealthy men might be considered at a higher risk of cheating because they attract more women whilst a less attractive man is a safer bet for long-term commitment. That women still preferred low attractive high wealthy men in the short-term suggests that they adopt this strategy no matter the dating context in case the coupling results in an unexpected pregnancy” (p. 6).
“Traits such as conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness facilitate long-term partnerships (DeYoung, Quilty & Peterson, 2007), whilst those of the dark triad (psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism) are associated with mating effort and short-term romantic encounters (Koladich & Atkinson, 2016).
According to life history theory, short-term relationships are preferable under certain circumstances. In environments where longterm survival is uncertain, allocating resources in the short-term to mating effort is adaptive (Del Giudice, Gangestad & Kaplan, 2015). Attractiveness might be prioritized because it signals the types of genetics that are adapted to uncertainty, certainly in terms of physique (e.g., strength and masculinity in men)” (Alyson Blanchard et al., 2021, p. 2).
Blanchard, A. E., Dunn, T. J., & Sumich, A. (2021). Borderline personality traits in attractive women and wealthy low attractive men are relatively favoured by the opposite sex. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, 109964.
by Jennifer Siebel Newsom
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A study of clinical characteristics from China found that 58% of the patients were men (Guan et al., April).